Assumption Smashing

A useful technique of generating ideas is to list the assumptions of the problem, and then explore what happens as you drop each of these assumptions individually or in combination. For example, I used to work in the Customer Service division of a software company. When customers purchase software, they are encouraged to purchase support agreements for a cost of 15 of the software value. The revenue from this maintenance funds the support personnel who answer telephones. The assumptions of this...

14 Test the Extremes to Discover More Solutions

Nick deWolf, cofounder of Teradyne, had many informal rules for doing good engineering.One such rule was To select a component, size a product, architect a system or plan a new company, first test the extremes and then have the courage to resist what is popular and the wisdom to choose what is best. Similar important benefits occur in the sciences Einstein developed the Theory of Relativity by thinking what happened at extreme speeds, when matter traveled near the speed of light. Other...

10 Steps forBoosting

Listen to music by Johann Sebastian Bach. If Bach doesn't make you more creative, you should probably see your doctor - or your brain surgeon if you are also troubled by headaches, hallucinations or strange urges in the middle of the night. . Brainstorm. If properly carried out, brainstorming can help you not only come up with sacks full of new ideas, but can help you decide which is best. Click here for more information on brainstorming and download our BrainStormer programme. Always...

1 An Example of a World Class Patent Strategy at General Electric

GE uses a very powerful standard optimizing procedure in preparation for filing a patent A brief patent disclosure is circulated within the company before any formal patent application is prepared. Everyone is invited to find ways to improve upon, extend or break the patent. All the relevant ideas are then incorporated into the formal patent application(s) and all contributors become co-inventors. There are many important advantages to this approach It results in more industrial strength...

5 The Invention of the Telescope Always Keep Your Eyes Open

An extreme example of people keeping their eyes closed (literally and figuratively) was the simple experiment that led to the invention of the telescope and microscope. It took more than 300 years after eyeglasses were in common use before Hans Uppershey, in 1608, observed the joint magnifying action of two lenses, built a simple telescope and then took action to publish his findings Shortly afterwards Galileo applied the telescope to the study of the planets and quickly discovered that the...

Basic Guidelines for Brainstorming

Brainstorming is useful for attacking specific (rather than general) problems and where a collection of good, fresh, new ideas (rather than judgment or decision analysis) are needed. For example, a specific problem like how to mark the content of pipes (water, steam, etc.) would lend itself to brainstorming much better than a general problem like how the educational system can be improved. Note, though, that even general problems can be submitted to brainstorming with success. Brainstorming can...

Value Of Experimentation Play Exaggeration Persistence

Spend some time trying things you know won't work or don't know how they will work. If you don't fail frequently you aren't trying hard enough and may be missing a lot of good opportunities. Try Tom Peter's algorithm READY, FIRE, AIM. Persist, persist, persist. As Edison said invention is 1 inspiration and 99 perspiration persistipation . Be very stubborn about solving a problem, but be flexible about the definition of the true problem and be very flexible and open minded...

Miscellaneous Good Attitudes

Most people fail because they spend only nine minutes on a problem that requires ten minutes to solve. Creativity and problem solving are hard work and require fierce application of time and energy. There is no quick and easy secret. You need knowledge gained by study and research and you must put your knowledge to work by hard thinking and protracted experimentation. You've surely read of the difficulties and setbacks faced by most of the famous inventors--how many filaments...

Effective Use Of Notes

Try file cards with text and graphics (diagrams, flow charts, block diagrams, elementary circuits). Keep them simple and easy to change (use pencil or wipe-off transparencies for overlay). Scramble the cards, lay them out together in different arrangements. Consider computer equivalents outliners, rolodexes, Canvas, MindLink, HyperCard or SuperCard. Mark ideas and questions in a way that makes them obvious to a reader and searchable by a computer. Avoid software that eats up all your creative...

11 Readyfireaim Dont Assume the First Solution to a Problem or the First Product Design is the Best or Only

Tom Peters, in his book In Search of Excellence observes that successful companies and individuals have a bias towards action, doing short experiments to feel out new technologies or markets and then quickly revising their plans and goals based on what they learn. They admit in advance they don't know all the answers and expect to be surprised. Similarly they avoid an emotional or ego fixation on their first plans or prototypes.Tom Peters describes this process as Do it. Try it. Fix it.or, in...

Innovative Cost Reduction

Remember that the real objective is higher profits. Raising the selling price by adding value or retargeting the market can be an alternative or supplement to cutting costs. EFFECTIVE USE OF NOTES Try file cards with text and graphics (diagrams, flow charts, block diagrams, elementary circuits). Keep them simple and easy to change (use pencil or wipe-off transparencies for overlay). Scramble the cards, lay them out together in different arrangements. Consider computer equivalents outliners,...

8 Instant Photography was Inspired by Asking the Right Silly Questionwhile other companies come up with the wrong silly

Edward Land was taking pictures of his family while on a vacation trip in the southwest. His young daughter asked Why do we have to wait to see the pictures and Land thought to himself good question , sketched out some ideas and tried them after he returned to his lab in Boston. The Polaroid Camera and the science of instant photography appeared soon thereafter. Kodak marketing decided that their customers for cameras and films wouldn't mind waiting to see their pictures as they always had....

Drawing and Visual Thinking

So much of our thinking is word based which is very much a left-brained activity. To utilise the right brain in visualising and solving problems, a new method is needed thinking in a visual language. This is the premise of Betty Edward's book Drawing on the Artist Within (the sequel to Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. The seminal book on the subject of visual thinking would have to be Robert McKim's book Experiences in Visual Thinking which he developed from his experiences in teaching a...

Passive Active Simple Complex Simple Complex

connected withSight images ofProducts or connected withSight images ofHearing Images ofEmotionsOppositeTouching Images ofCharacteristics Products or resultsModes of operation AbilitiesFear of threatsGoals and connected withSight images ofCharacteristicsAbilitiesFear or threatsGoals and ow becomeWho isWhereWhenThings connected withSight images ofCharacteristicsProducts or results Harvest time Scrutinise the responses to the smashing questions and pore over every fact-bit to come up with ideas....

Patent And Project Notebooks

Patent notebooks are used to provide legal protection for inventions, but can have many other useful, complementary functions a recorder, a reminder, a source of ideas, a means of ensuring project continuity, and a way to communicate with yourself and within a project group. Neatness is not essential, but clarity and conformance to legal standards is critical. Other things that should be recorded sources, questions, what doesn't work, things to try. A truly effective, comprehensive patent...

In the Realm of the Senses

This technique focuses on the five senses as an area of focus, attribute listing or idea prompter. I took the name from a film by Nagisa Oshima, and it evokes the idea of each sense evoking different sets of responses. Think about various experiences you have had, such as hiking, running, dining out, falling in love and doing your job. Jot down your ideas about the different sensory components of each. An excellent way of using this technique is drawing a five senses mind map. Mike Vance in his...

Techniques for Creative Thinking

First of all, you should read the introduction which discusses the question What can I Applied Imagination - Question Summary Metaphorical thinking Lotus Blossum Technique In the realm of the senses Use of drawing (from Robert McKim's Experiences in Visual Thinking IdeaToons (by Michael Michalko) New NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming) Techniques Simplex - a complete process with three stages (finding problems,solving problems, implementing solutions) and eight discrete steps represented as a...

Storyboarding

Storyboards go back to the very beginnings of cinema, with Sergei Eisenstein using the technique. In the world of animation, Walt Disney and his staff developed a Story Board system in 1928. Disney wanted to achieve full animation and for this, he needed to produce an enormous number of drawings. Managing the thousands of drawings and the progress of a project was nearly impossible, so Disney had his artists pin up their drawings on the studio walls. This way, progress could be checked, and...

Six Thinking Hats

Early in the 1980s Dr. de Bono invented the Six Thinking Hats method. The method is a framework for thinking and can incorporate lateral thinking. Valuable judgmental thinking has its place in the system but is not allowed to dominate as in normal thinking. Dr. de Bono organized a network of authorized trainers to introduce the Six Thinking Hats. Advanced Practical Thinking (APTT), of Des Moines, Iowa USA, licenses the training in all parts of the world except Canada (and now, Europe). APTT...

Sources of Blocking

As we mentioned earlier, functional fixation arises when someone is unable to see beyond the historical or accepted use for an item, often identified by its name or label. Thus, for example, a screwdriver is a tool for tightening or loosening screws, just as its name says. A person suffering from functional fixation would be unable to see any other uses for the item. But, of course, a screwdriver can also be used as a paint can opener, an ice pick, a plumb bob, a paper...

White Hat on the Hats

There are six metaphorical hats and the thinker can put on or take off one of these hats to indicate the type of thinking being used. This putting on and taking off is essential. The hats must never be used to categorize individuals, even though their behavior may seem to invite this. When done in group, everybody wear the same hat at the same time. This covers facts, figures, information needs and gaps. I think we need some white hat thinking at this point means Let's drop the arguments and...

7 Von Hipples Law of User Innovation Source of New Product Opportunities

Eric Von Hipple of the MIT Business School made many studies of the sources of innovation in the electronics industry and concluded that more than 70 of the product innovations came from the users, who initially can't find the tools or equipment they need on the market and are forced to develop them in-house. Most companies ignore this process and consequently miss many good, easy opportunities for new products or product enhancements. A related rule is that most breakthroughs in new products...

3 The True Story Newtons Laws were Inspired by a Combination of Visual Images

Seemingly independent visual or mental images that are considered concurrently may inspire unique ideas. According to his own story (and in contradiction to the story of being hit on the head by a falling apple), Newton conceived the concept of universal gravitation when he observed an apple falling and at the same time noticed the moon in the sky. These simultaneous images inspired him to speculate if the same laws governed the falling apple and the moon orbiting the earth. This in turn led...

Attribute Listing

Notes from Creating Workforce Innovation by Michael Morgan - published by Business and Professional Pubolshing 1993 Attribute listing is a great technique for ensuring all possible aspects of a problem have been examined. Attribute listing is breaking the problem down into smaller and smaller bits and seeing what you discover when you do. Let's say you are in the business of making torches. You are under pressure from your competition and need to improve the quality of your product. By breaking...

Checklists

Alex Osborn in his pioneering book Applied Imagination talks about Questions as spurs to ideation, and outlines about 75 idea-spurring questions in his book. The simplest set of questions comes from the six basic questions described in the Ask Questions section of the Creativity Web. The What other uses is a good question for by adding uses we can often add value. By piling up alternatives by way of other uses, a still better use is likely to come to light. Osborn went on with the following...

2 Invention of the Transistor the Benefits of Creative Failure Methodology Examples of the Use of Planned Serendipity

William Shockley described the process of inventing the transistor at Bell Labs as creative failure methodology. A multi-discipline Bell Labs team was formed to invent the MOS transistor and ended up instead with the junction transistor and the new science of semiconductor physics. These developments eventually led to the MOS transistor and then to the integrated circuit and to new breakthroughs in electronics and computers. Richard Feynman, also a Nobel Laureate physicist, believed in getting...

Lateral Thinking

Edward de Bono writes in Serious Creativity, how he became interested in the sort of thinking that computers could not do creative and perceptual thinking. The entry in the Concise Oxford Dictionary reads seeking to solve problems by unorthodox or apparently illogical methods. Lateral thinking is about moving sideways when working on a problem to try different perceptions, different concepts and different points of entry. The term covers a variety of methods including provocations to get us out...

Free form assumption dropping

Assumption dropping is a great way to relax and think of crazy ideas. How would you answer these questions What if gravity stopped for one minute every day What would you do if you didn't have to sleep Describe your working week if you only had to go to work (or school) for one day a week Or one month of the year More examples can be found in a document on Escape Thinking. Last updated 18th October 1996 Send your comments to Charles Cave This technique is fully described in the book The Art of...

Myths about Creative Thinking and Problem Solving

Every problem has only one solution (or one right answer). The goal of problem solving is to solve the problem, and most problems can be solved in any number of ways. If you discover a solution that works, it is a good solution. There may be other solutions thought of by other people, but that doesn't make your solution wrong. What is THE solution to putting words on paper Fountain pen, ball point, pencil, marker, typewriter, printer, Xerox machine, printing press 2. The best answer solution...

Start With The Customer Or End User

The customer is always your first and most important creative challenge. Listen Try to see the customers problems and needs from his point of view. 18 Restate the problem and the customers needs in his terms and iterate until a consensus is reached. Ask not only what his problems are, but what special methods or tools he is presently using to solve them. 7 Work together with or in the place of the end user or customer. Use fictitious product descriptions to stimulate ideas and discussion....

Metaphorical thinking

People tend to think of the mind as analogous to current technology. Over the last few centuries, the mind has been likened to a steam engine, telephone exchange, and recently, a computer. The mind is more than a computer A metaphor is a soft thinking technique connecting two different universes of meaning. Examples Food chain, flow of time, fiscal watchdog. The key to metaphorical thinking is similarity. The human mind tends to look for similarities. A road map is a model or metaphor of...

Marriage as a pencil

Betty Edwards in her book Drawing on the Artist Within shows the example of a pencil used to examine aspects of a marriage. Pencil Marriage Gold Ring Remember promises Blue Ring Clean the tub. I share depression too often with family Yellow Too timid. Harold needs to know my true feelings Flat side Dull daily routine. Change activities Six sides 6 things to do Budget, Take a class, Improve discipline, be more assertive, start now , improve communications Eraser Rub him out Forgive and forget...

Walt Disney

Dilts concluded that Walt Disney moved through three distinct states when he produce his work. Dilt's called them Dreamer, Realist and Critic. Each of these three stages have a distinct physiology and thought patterns and can be consciously employed by individuals who want to improve their creative performance. It is beyond the scope and mandate of this FAQ to elaborate any further on Dilt's work. If you want more information, consult his books Tools for Dreamers and Skills for the Future....

2The Synectic Trigger Mechanisms

Synectic Trigger mechanisms catalyse new thoughts, ideas and inventions Synectic Theory is based on disruptive thinking - similar to the PO operation of Edward de Bono The creative process is a matter of continually separating and bringing together, bringing together and separating, in many dimensions - affective, conceptual, perceptual, volitional and physical - Albert Rothenberg Synectics is based on the fusion of opposites Synectics is based on analogical thinking Synectics is Synergistic....

1Divide your challenge into attributes

Describe each attribute by drawing an abstract graphic symbol. Each drawing should represent a specific attribute and be on a separate index card. Draw whatever feels right for you. Allow the image of the attribute to emerge in its own way - to state what is wants to say. On the back of the card, write the attribute. 3. Place all of the file cards on a table with the graphic symbols facing up. Group and regroup the symbols randomly into various relationships. Try letting the cards arrange...

1The Synectic Attitude

Synectics encourages the ability to live with complexity and apparent contradiction Synectics stimulates creative thinking Synectics mobilises both sides of the brain, the right brain (the dreamer), and the left brain (the reasoner) Synectics provides a free-thinking state of consciousness In a free-thinking state, analogies between perceptions, concepts, or even systems and abstractions tend to occur repeatedly. - silvano Arieti Creativity demands flexibility and imaginativeness but also...

Creative Thinking Techniques

Robert HarrisVanguard University of Southern CaliforniaVersion Date July 2, 1998 You'll remember the five creative methods we discussed in the Introduction to Creative Thinking evolution, synthesis, revolution, reapplication, changing direction. Many classic creative thinking techniques make use of one or more of these methods. Note in this section that the goal is to produce a good quantity and a good quality of new ideas and solutions so that the best ones may be chosen. Exactly how those...

Lotus Blossom Technique

Lotus2.htmlotus2.htm Extracted fromThinkpak by Michael MichalkoPublished by Ten Speed Press 1994 Michael MichalkoReproduced with permission of the author This exercise involves starting with a central theme or problem and working outward, using ever-widening circles or petals. Central themes lead to ideas that themselves become central themes, and so forth. The unfolding themes trigger new ideas and new themes. 1. Copy the diagram above by clicking on the image above for a larger image, or...

Fuzzy Logic The Revolutionary Computer Technology that is changing the world

By Daniel McNeill and Paul Freiburger. Although the main application of Fuzzy Logic has been in process control (train controllers, air conditioning, control of nuclear reactors, etc), the principles are important to the understanding of how we think. I believe it is as important as Edward de Bono's book Mechanism of Mind. How would you decide to change jobs or propose marriage Answers to questions such as Is the Salary Good , Can we be happy will have varying degrees of truth. In Aristotelian...

Brainstorming

The term Brainstorming has become a commonly used word in the English language as a generic term for creative thinking. The basis of brainstorming is a generating ideas in a group situation based on the principle of suspending judgment - a principle which scientific research has proved to be highly productive in individual effort as well as group effort. The generation phase is separate from the judgment phase of thinking. In Michael Morgan's book Creative Workforce Innovation he gives the...

Question Summary

Applied Imagination Alex Osborn - 1957 Make an idea-prompting poster by printing this page and placing it in a prominent Put to other uses New ways to use as is Other uses if modified Adapt What else is like this What other idea does this suggest Does the past offer parallel What could I copy Whom could I emulate Modify New twist Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, form, shape Other shapes Magnify What to add More time Greater Value Plus ingredient Duplicate Multiply Exaggerate Minify...

Forced Analogy

Forced analogy is a very useful and fun-filled method of generating ideas. The idea is to compare the problem with something else that has little or nothing in common and You can force a relationship between almost anything, and get new insights -companies and whales, management systems and telephone networks, or your relationship and a pencil. Forcing relationships is one of the most powerful ways to develop ways to develop new insights and new solutions. A useful way of developing the...

Introduction

Learn Mind Mapping from Vanda North(Co-founder with Tony Buzan of the Brain Trust & Brain Clubs)Sydney and Melbourne, Australia - March 2001Contact MindWerx International - Phone (03) 9482 9018 The human brain is very different from a computer. Whereas a computer works in a linear fasion, the brain works associativeiy as well as linearly - comparing, integrating and synthesising as it goes. Association plays a dominant role in nearly every mental function, and words themselves are no...

Demo on using NLP As An Aid to Creativity

The next time you find yourself creative, e.g. you are noticing it easy to generate a lot of ideas or you finding it easy to elaborate on an idea, notice the position of your body and observe the context in which you are operating Record as much as you can about how you made yourself creative. You can then use that information (the more details the better) to set the state for being creative in the future, i.e. put yourself in a matching body posture and in a similar particular context as...

NLP Techniques

Practitioners of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), a.k.a. the science of subjective experience, have produced a number of techniques that can be used to describe the strategies used by highly effective people. Essentially, experts are carefully studied and analyzed (or modeled in NLP parlance) as a way to make conscious and unpack the mental strategies they used to get expert results. Once the strategies are decoded, they are the available for others to enhance their own expertise. Milton...

Roger von Oech writes in OA Kick in the Seat of the PantsO

A good way to turn your mental attic of experiences into a treasure room is to use Otrigger conceptsO - words that wll spark a fresh association of ideas in your mind. Like pebbles dropping in a pond, they stimulate other associations, some of which may help you find something new. He writes in OA Whack on the Side of the HeadO about various cultures having oracles. The ancient Greeks used the ambigious predictions of the Delphic Oracle, the Chinese used the I Ching, the Egyptians consulted the...

Historical Notes

This talk was discovered by my father, Herbert Anton Schneider, in his papers. He was at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ when he heard it. He wrote '1952' on the top, so presumably he obtained the text January of that year. He sent me a copy. John Pierce granted me permission to put the talk on the web with no restraints or copyright reservations. The pages were scanned by a Microtek ScanMaker 4 on a Power Macintosh 7600 120 with OmniPage Pro 8.0 and then edited into html. To retain the...

The Discontinuity Principle

The more you are used to something, the less stimulating it is for our thinking. When you disrupt your thought patterns, those ideas that create the greatest stimulus to our thinking do so because they force us to make new connections in order to comprehend the situation. Roger van Oech calls this a Whack on the Side of the Head, and Edward de Bono coined a new word, po, which stands for Provocative Operation. Try programming interruptions into your day. Change working hours, get to work a...

Positive Attitudes for Creativity

Creative people want to know things--all kinds of things-- just to know them. Knowledge does not require a reason. The question, Why do you want to know that seems strange to the creative person, who is likely to respond, Because I don't know the answer. Knowledge is enjoyable and often useful in strange and unexpected ways. For example, I was once attempting to repair something, without apparent success, when an onlooker asked testily, Do you know what you're doing I replied calmly,...

Write down a statement of the problem

Define the problem carefully to make sure you are solving the real problem and to help engage your unconscius and conscious minds to the problem. Mind Focus 1) Ask why the problem exists. This may lead to a broader statement of the problem.2) Try to subdivide the problem into smaller problems. This may lead to a narrower restatement of the problem. Mind Grip Write down at least three two-word statements of the problem objective. Select the combination of words which best represents the precise...

Notes from Books by Tony Buzan

Use Both Sides of your Brain Plume 1989 Chapter 6 - Mind Maps Introduction Chapter 7 - Mind Maps - The Laws Chapter 8 - Mind Maps - advanced methods and uses Chapter 9 - The Mind Map organic study technique (MMOST) The Mind Map Book - How to Use Radiant Thinking to Maximise Your Brain's Untapped Potential The Mind Map Book The disadvantages of standard notes Mind maps use pictures. Harnessing the full range of your cortical skills Summary of the Mind Map Laws The mnemonic mind map as a mirror...

Write down the most optimal statement of the problem

Open yourself to consider many diverse solution ideas. Delay judgment on ideas generated until the Identify step. First, list any ideas which are on your mind. Then Mind Prompt Ask other people with diverse backgrounds, knowledge and intelligence for solutions to your problem. Use their solutions as prompters for your own ideas. Mind Surprise List ridiculous, laughable ideas. Use them to trigger more reasonably, possible usable solutions to your problem. Mind Free Stimulate fresh ideas by...

Negative Attitudes That Block Creativity

Oh no, a problem The reaction to a problem is often a bigger problem than the problem itself. Many people avoid or deny problems until it's too late, largely because these people have never learned the appropriate emotional, psychological, and practical responses. A problem is an opportunity. The happiest people welcome and even seek out problems, meeting them as challenges and opportunities to improve things. Definition a problem is (1) seeing the difference between what you have and what you...

From OTeach your child to thinkO Edward de Bono

The Orandom-wordO method is a powerful lateral-thinking technique that is very easy to use. It is by far the simplest of all creative techniques and is widely used by people who need to create new ideas (for example, for new products). Chance events allow us to enter the existing patterns of our thinking at a different point. The associations of a word applied to the new Oout of contextO situation generates new connections in our mind, often producing an instant OEurekaO effect, insight or...

Introduction to Creative Thinking

Robert HarrisVanguard University of Southern CaliforniaVersion Date July 1, 1998 Much of the thinking done in formal education emphasizes the skills of analysis-teaching students how to understand claims, follow or create a logical argument, figure out the answer, eliminate the incorrect paths and focus on the correct one. However, there is another kind of thinking, one that focuses on exploring ideas, generating possibilities, looking for many right answers rather than just one. Both of these...

Block Busting Techniques

This is a simple technique that can be used for mental stimulation or practical application, depending on what you have in mind at the time. It is an excellent tool for breaking you out of a functionally fixated mindset. To use this technique, think of an item or object, usually a common one like a brick, toothpick, pencil, or bucket, and set the task of thinking of all the possible uses for that object, without regard to what the object is normally used for, what it is named, or how...

Characteristics of the Creative Person

Seeks problems enjoys challenge optimistic able to suspend judgment comfortable with imagination sees problems as opportunities doesn't give up easily perseveres, works hard The Home Page of Robert Harris Vanguard U Home PageCopyright 1992, 1998 by Robert Harris How to cite this page About the author Robert Harris is Professor of English at Vanguard University of Southern California in Costa Mesa, California. RHarris vanguard.edu CREATIVE THINKING by J. R. Pierce I have been asked to talk to...

Lets get started

First of all, you must identify the problem you have and write it down. Next, you must gather information about it to mix in with the information already stored in the brain. Now do something. Take creative action by using the Trigger Questions to transform your ideas and information into something new. These questions are tools for transformational thinking and may lead you to some great discoveries. Design Synectics - Stimulating Creativity in DesignNicholas...

LARC Left and Right Creativity

The LARC method is step by step process that brings the right creative side of your brain into play with the left logical side. Each phase of the program suggest specific, easy-to-follow techniques. The technique comes from the book Unleasing the Right Side of the Brain by Robert Williams and John Stockmyer, published by The Stephen Greene Press in 1987. The right brain can be stimulated using drawing and visual images. There are four versions of LARC and each is a complete system for the...

Problem Reversal

From What a Great Idea by Charles Thompson. The world is full of opposites. Of course, any attribute, concept or idea is meaningless without its opposite. Lao-tzu wrote Tao-te Ching which stresses the need for the successful leader to see opposites all around The wise leader knows how to be creative. In order to lead, the leader learns to follow. In order to prosper, the leader learns to live simply. In both cases, it is the interaction that is creative. All behaviour consists of opposites...