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squares or places, I suggest that he may select number-words relating to some chosen category of things, such as:

Towns; I Tokio, 2 New York, 3 Manchester, 4 Rio de Janeiro, 5 London, etc. For number 10 a town beginning with s or z—Stuttgart. Here I use the first consonant only.

Animals; 1 dog, 2 hen, 3 monkey, 4 rabbit, 5 lion, etc.

Materials; 1 wood, 2 enamel, 3 marble, 4 iron, 5 leather, etc.

Races; 1 Tibetan, 2 Indian, 3 American, 4 Russian, 5 Liberian, etc.

Locomotion; i tram-car, 2 underground railway, 3 motor car, 4 aeroplane, 5 lorry, etc.

Shops; 1 Thacker's, 2 Wanamaker's, 3 Marshall Field's,

4 Orr's, 5 Liberty's, etc. (I have given the names of shops well known to me; the student will easily provide substitutes of his own.)

Clothing; 1 turban, 2 necktie, 3 umbrella, 4 riding suit,

Foods; 1 toffee, 2 nuts, 3 milk, 4 rice, 5 olive oil, etc.

People; 1 Hitler, 2 Napoleon, 3 Emerson, 4 Rembrandt, 5 Lenin, etc. (I have given historical names, but personally-known people are even better, as having more mnemonic detail.)

I now ask the student to notice that I have given, in "Towns," "Animals," "Materials," etc., number-words for 1, 2, 3, etc. He is thereby provided with 90 squares, which will serve him well for a long series, since he can use Towns for places 11 to 20, Animals for places 21 to 30, and so on. To complete a full" house " of a hundred squares he can make an extra series of 1 to 10, composed of, say, Sounds: 1 thunder, 2 neighing, 3 music, 4 rattle, 5 laughter etc.

I consider this last method of mine about the best of all —easiest to commit to memory, and allowing for a selection of very familiar objects. Let the student make up his own ten sets of varied familiar objects on these lines, and he will be well equipped to perform what most people will regard as wonderful feats of memory.

Whatever he decides upon he will do well to make a set of little drawings for himself; however rough or crude they may be they will aid his imagination greatly.

It is necessary to commit the chosen set of places thoroughly to memory, but the task is an easy one, because the objects either resemble the numbers they represent or are number-words. Another plan for making a set of 25 squares on the spur of the moment is to follow the letters of the alphabet (omitting x) with reference to some category such as animals, or countries or occupations. Thus we might form the series: Architect, Butler, Carpenter, Doctor, Elephant-trainer, Farmer, Goldsmith, Harbour-master, Ink-maker, Journalist, Kitchen-maid . . . Veterinary surgeon, Watchman, Yachtsman, Zoologist.

The advantage of the picture-system over that of merely linking together a long string of things is that you can at once pick out any one of the things you want from it without disarranging the series, and without having to repeat the whole series from the beginning. Its disadvantage is that more ideas are imposed upon the mind than are necessary for understanding the things to be remembered. Yet that disadvantage is small, and the system does enable one to do some things that would be impossible by the link method. With its aid some astonishing memory feats can be performed.

Some such system as this was almost universally employed by those who from time to time appeared in Middle Age Europe performing memory feats consisting of repeating vast numbers of words and numbers once read out to them. One of the most striking examples of this use of the art was a certain Lambert Schenckel, who travelled over the chief countries in Europe in the sixteenth century, and won honour and praise everywhere, though in his earlier years he, like many others, was persecuted for supposed traffic with the devil. A pupil of his, Sommer, writes in a Latin treatise—

"A lawyer, who has a hundred or more causes to conduct, by the assistance of my mnemonics may stamp them so strongly on his memory that he will know in what manner to answer each client, in any order and at any hour, with as much precision as if he had but just perused his brief. And in pleading, he will not only have the evidence and reasonings of his own party at his finger's ends, but all the grounds and refutations of his antagonist also. Let a man go into a library, and read one book after another, yet he shall be able to write down all that he has read, many days after, at home."

The student will understand, from my previous chapters, how to associate the objects to be remembered with the places to which they are assigned. Suppose that in the 17th place we want to remember an ostrich. Let my 17th place be a town beginning with k, g, or ng, say Kiel. I do not like the old idea of making a picture of an ostrich crossing the Kiel canal. If I make a rational association and concentrate on it for a moment, I can drop it out of mind with full confidence that it will come to light again as soon as I think of Kiel. Such a connexion might be: ostrich—sand—water—canal—Kiel.

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