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white and moon (Quality) ; moon and sun (Class); sun and glory (Quality); glory and fame (Class).

All these links could be expressed in a more familiar way by simply making sentences to connect each pair of words. That might be more convenient for a mind quite unaccustomed to scientific methods and formulae. Nevertheless, the method is not as good as that of naming the Road between each pair, because the act of pausing with the two ideas before the mind while finding the name of the Road connecting them creates a momentary concentration on the two ideas together, which is the chief cause of their being afterwards remembered together.

However, for those who wish simply to make sentences I will lay down the following two rules—

1. When you link two ideas together, always give a clear reason for their association.

2. Never invent any unnatural reason.

I will now illustrate these rules by the following series: Yellow — gold — iron — rails — railway — steam — water — ice — snow — soft — fur — skin — hand — pen — paper.

Yellow and gold; because gold is of yellow colour.

Gold and metal, because gold is a metal.

Metal and iron; because iron is a metal.

Iron and rails; because rails are made of iron.

Rails and railway; because rails are part of a railway.

Railway and steam; because there is steam traction on most railways.

Steam and water; because these are two forms of the same thing.

Water and ice; because these also are two forms of one thing.

Ice and snow; because they are forms of the same thing, and are often found together in winter.

Snow and soft; because snow is very soft.

Soft and fur; because fur is very soft.

Fur and skin; because the fur is attached to the skin of the animal.

Skin and hand; because the skin is part of the hand.

Hand and pen; because we hold a pen in the hand when we write with it.

Pen and paper; because with a pen we usually write on paper.

Putting some of these in a different order we could make a more difficult example: water—paper—railway—gold— steam—fur—pen—snow—metal—skin. The connexions by sentences might be somewhat as follows—

A sheet of paper is smooth like the surface of calm water. Or, water is used in making paper pulp. What is the connexion between paper and railway ? Sometimes carriage wheels are made of compressed paper-pulp; also everybody must be familiar with the forms of the book-stall boys running about in the big railway stations, selling their bundles of papers. Next come railway and gold. Here it would be rather unnatural to think of railway trucks heaped up with gold; it would be better to observe that the railway companies are immensely rich and that much gold passes through their hands. How is gold related to steam ? The use of steam power has increased the wealth of humanity enormously, and wealth is represented by gold. The next pair is steam and fur. Furs conserve the warmth of the body; warmth produces steam from water, or let us say, steam issues from a hot place, such as a volcano, while the most valuable furs are obtained from the cold latitudes, there being a contrast between the two ideas in this respect. We come to fur and pen. The hair of animals is used (among other things) for making artists' brushes, or "pencils," and the brush and the pen are akin, since both are used for the same purpose, that of writing and drawing. We might associate these two in another way. Fur and feathers are the coverings of animals and birds, respectively, and a quill pen is made from the feathers of a goose. As for pen and snow, let us say the feather of a quill is as white as snow. In deference to rule 2 we must, of course, avoid making an idea such as "I find a pen in the snow," or " I see a snow man eating a fountain-pen." Such ridiculosities have no part in the true art of memory. Snow can be connected with metal because one is soft, the other hard. Metal can be connected with skin on the ground that knights of old used to wear metal armour and though as a rule it did not touch the skin, it was, as it were, a metal skin to the body. A good alternative is the idea that the skin of a ship is nowadays made of metal.

As an illustration of the use of the Roads in remembering a number of words I will take the collection of French nouns given in Chapter VIII. Dr. Pick put them in the following order, which he considered the most convenient that could be made with these specific words. I will, however, give my own Roads of Thought, as I consider them an improvement upon the various associations of thought put forward by many teachers of mnemonics during the last few centuries.

I give the English words, in order to present the meanings so plainly that he who runs may read, but let the student of French repeat the series to himself only in that language. To emphasize the importance of isolating each pair of ideas and thinking of only two at a time I will show the series in tabular form.

Conjoin tooth with rabies (Proximity);

,, rabies with pity (Proximity);

,, end with peace (Proximity);

„ virtue with friendship (Class);

„ friendship with nation (Proximity);

tribe with ant (Class);

„ sheep with leap (Proximity or Quality);

Conjoin leap with mare (Proximity or Quality);

,, marc with partridge (Class);

,, partridge with forest (Proximity);

,, page with syllable (Part or Proximity);

,, syllable with image (Class—all words are symbols).

For the remainder of the series I will leave the student to find the Roads for himself or herself, as an exercise.

Conjoin image with water;

„ water with swimming;

,, swimming with cough;

,, cough with thirst;

,, hunger with death;

„ nave with partition-wall;

„ partition-wall with chalk;

The reader may wonder why I have so much insisted that only two ideas be taken together. The answer is: Because the ability to forget or put things out of mind is essential to a good memory. If you want to remember something new to you you must, at least for a moment, concentrate upon it in relation with something which is already familiar. It is impossible to obtain that concentration while you are trying not to forget something else. To emphasize still further this necessity for forgetting, I will give one more exercise showing the process—

Animal and cow (Class), forget animal;

cow and horns (Part), forget cow;

horns and knife (Class or Proximity), forget horns;

knife and spoon (Class), forget knife;

spoon and tea (Proximity), forget spoon ;

tea and wakefulness (Proximity), forget tea;

wakefulness and sleep (Class), forget wakefulness;

sleep and vigour (Proximity), forget sleep;

vigour and Hercules (Quality), forget vigour;

Hercules and Greece (Proximity), forget Hercules ;

Greece and Italy (Class), forget Greece;

Italy and top-boot (Quality), forget Italy;

top-boot and highwayman (Proximity), forget top-boot;

highwayman and horse (Proximity), forget highwayman;

horse and swiff (Quality), forget horse;

swift and eagle (Quality), forget swift;

eagle and peak (Proximity), forget eagle;

peak and snow (Proximity), forget peak;

snow and cotton-wool (Quality), forget snow;

cotton-wool and gas (Quality), forget cotton-wool;

gas and liquid (Class), forget gas;

liquid and sap (Class), forget liquid ;

sap and bark (Part), forget sap;

bark and skin (Class), forget bark.

After studying these relationships, close the book and repeat the whole series slowly forwards and backwards. If you have any difficulty in remembering any of them, try every possible device before you consent to look up the list in the book. If in going forward you come to a stop, start from the end and work backward until you meet the difficulty in the rear. If that does not avail, take the word next to the missing one, and ask yourself whether the connexion was one of Class, Part, Quality, or Proximity. The recovery of the last idea is sure by this method. One should not submit to the ignominy of looking up the list, either as an admission of failure, or worse still as a capitulation to mental indolence. The mind should be firmly made to render complete obedience. When repeating the words you need not recall the relationships or linkages, except when a breakdown occurs.

To complete my emphasis upon the placing together of two ideas, let me explain further:

It must be observed that two separate or dissociated ideas will not co-exist in the mind without blending. A new idea can come forward in thought only by linking itself with another already in the mind. If two ideas are brought together, cither they will blend into a larger unit, or the stronger will push out the weaker, which will then slip out of attention. Link two such ideas by a third, which is common to both, and at once they will remain together comfortably before the attention.

Picture, for example, in your imagination a pen and a hand separately. Now try to hold these separate ideas at once before the mind. You will find that the attention runs rapidly to and fro from one object to the other, and each is lost in turn; but if you picture the pen in the hand in the act of writing it becomes easy to hold them together without any variation of attention, because they are then really one idea, the two objects having a unity of purpose and action.

The sequences of ideas which we have studied in this chapter may seem somewhat artificial, but really all our life is such a sequence. There has been a continuous succession and if we wish to remember something that has occurred within it we can often do so with the aid of outstanding landmarks by the roadside. The ways of memory are not unlike those of outer experience.

In finding our way about the outer world from one place to another we have three particular guides. We may reach our goal by fixing our eyes on a distant spire or mountain peak, and gradually working towards it, overcoming or circumventing such obstacles as we may find in our path. We may follow out a well-marked road, trusting that it will take us to the place we wish to reach. We may take note of a succession of landmarks, and proceed from point to point with their aid. In a well laid out country these are amply provided. There is no road without landmarks—at this turning an inn, at that a stout and ancient oak tree, at"

another a tinkling rivulet, at the next, a farm-house with a barking dog, and children playing in the yard.

In the sequence of memories, also, the roads have their landmarks—ideas each of which leads on to the next and suggests it. With their aid the train of thought can almost always find its way with certainty along the roads and paths which it has trodden before. At the age of six I had a severe illness, at twelve my father removed his home to a new house, at sixteen I went to college—such are the pronounced memories from which most persons would be able to trace out details of the past.

The man of orderly and well-appointed mind finds himself living as in a pleasant, prosperous country with well-kept roads, well-stocked lands and smiling gardens, whether his range be small or large. Another may live in a barren wilderness or jungle twenty times as large, but to move from point to point must cross the arid, thirsty wastes of useless knowledge, scramble over the broken ground of mental rubbish, wade through the pestiferous marshes of ill-associated thoughts, or force his painful way through the tangled undergrowth of confused purposes and ideas. It is, of course, largely these ill-associations that are responsible for bad memories, for when they are numerous the roads and tracks are almost obliterated.

In the following chapter I will try to show how the mind travels, and we may then consider the means to guide its future movement.

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