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his familiarity with table, ink, lion, zodiac, elephant, and chicholo as follows—

The diagram indicated that a table was to him an object of the highest familiarity, ink an object of less familiarity, and so on through the examples of a lion, the zodiac and an elephant, to a chicholo, which was an object of the greatest un familiarity.

Though we may note these degrees of familiarity, for practical purposes of learning and remembering it will be sufficient to employ two. Our aim in learning something—

and our first step in remembering it—will be to convert a into a I n practice we generally find that two things have to be remembered together. There is no adding of something to nothing in the mind; the newly acquired notion has to be put beside or added to something already known.

The learning of foreign alphabets or the names of plants, or other such things, involves the association of two things in the mind so that they will recur together in memory. Thus, if I am learning the Greek alphabet and I come across the sign n and am told that it represents the sound "pi," my learning of this fact consists in my remembering together the unfamiliar form n and thefamiliar sound "pi." I have to associate an unfamiliar with a familiar. Really all learning consists in associating something previously unknown with something previously known.

From these considerations Major Beniowski formulated what he called the three phrenotypic problems, namely—

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