References

1. Barnes, C. A. (1988) "Aging and the physiology of spatial memory." Neurobiol. Aging 9:563-568.

2. Barnes, C. A., Suster, M. S., Shen, J., and McNaughton, B. L. (1997). "Multistability of cognitive maps in the hippocampus of old rats." Nature 388:272-275.

3. Barnes, C. A., Rao, G., and Houston, F. P. (2000). "LTP induction threshold change in old rats at the perforant path—granule cell synapse." Neurobiol. Aging 21:613-620.

4. Barnes, C. A., Rao, G., and Shen, J. (1997). "Age-related decrease in the N-methyl-D-spartateR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1." Neurobiol. Aging 18:445-452.

5. Lynch, M. A. (1998). "Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the age-related impairment in long-term potentiation in the rat." Rev. Neurosci. 9:169-201.

6. Braak, H., Braak, E., and Bohl, J. (1993). "Staging of Alzheimer-related cortical destruction." Eur. Neurol. 33:403-408.

7. Nagy, Z., Hindley, N. J., Braak, H., Braak, E., Yilmazer-Hanke, D. M., Schultz, C., Barnetson, L., Jobst, K. A., and Smith, A. D. (1999). "Relationship between clinical and radiological diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and the extent of neuropathology as reflected by 'stages': a prospective study." Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 10:109-114.

8. Braak, E., and Braak, H. (1997). "Alzheimer's disease: transiently developing dendritic changes in pyramidal cells of sector CA1 of the Ammon's horn." Acta. Neuropathol. (Berl) 93:323-325.

9. Braak, H., and Braak, E. (1998). "Evolution of neuronal changes in the course of Alzheimer's disease." J. Neural. Transm. Suppl. 53:127-140.

10. Alzheimer, A. (1907). "Uber eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde." Allgemeine Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie und Psychisch-gerichtliche Medizin 64:146-148.

11. Whitehouse, P. J., Price, D. L., Struble, R. G., Clark, A. W., Coyle, J. T., and Delon, M. R. (1982). "Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia: loss of neurons in the basal forebrain." Science 215:1237-1239.

12. Braak HaB, E. (1994). In: Neurodegenerative diseases, edited by Caine DB. Philadelphia: Saunders; 585-613.

13. Zweig, R. M., Ross, C. A., Hedreen, J. C., Steele, C., Cardillo, J. E., Whitehouse, P. J., Folstein, M. F., and Price, D. L. (1988). "The neuropathology of amin-ergic nuclei in Alzheimer's disease." Ann. Neurol. 24:233-242.

14. Hyman, B. T., Van Horsen, G. W., Damasio, A. R., and Barnes, C. L. (1984). "Alzheimer's disease: cell-specific pathology isolates the hippocampal formation." Science 225:1168-1170.

15. Hyman, B. T., Van Hoesen, G. W., Kromer, L. J., and Damasio, A. R. (1986). "Perforant pathway changes and the memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease." Ann. Neurol. 20:472-481.

16. Spillantini, M. G., and Goedert, M. (1998). "Tau protein pathology in neurodegenerative diseases." Trends Neurosci. 21:428-433.

17. Taylor, J. P., Hardy, J., and Fischbeck, K. H. (2002). "Toxic proteins in neurodegenerative disease." Science 296:1991-1995.

18. Glenner, G. G., and Wong, C. W. (1984). "Alzheimer's disease: initial report of the purification and characterization of a novel cerebrovasular amyloid protein." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120:885-890.

19. Masters, C. L., Simms, G., Weinman, N. A., Multhaup, G., McDonald, B. L., and Beyreuther, K. (1985). "Amyloid plaque core protein in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:4245-4249.

20. Kang, J., Lemaire, H. G., Unterbeck, A., Salbaum, J. M., Masters, C. L., Grzeschik, K. H., Multhaup, G., Beyreuther, K., and Muller-Hill, B. (1987). "The precursor of Alzheimer's disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell-surface receptor." Nature 325:733-736.

21. Lamb, B. T., Sisodia, S. S., Lawler, A. M., Slunt, H. H., Kitt, C. A., Kearns, W. G., Pearson, P. L., Price, D. L., and Gearhart, J. D. (1993). "Introduction and expression of the 400 kilobase amyloid precursor protein gene in transgenic mice [corrected]." Nat. Genet. 5:22-30.

22. Koo, E. H., Sisodia, S. S., Archer, D. R., Martin, L. J., Weidemann, A., Beyreuther, K., Fischer, P., Masters, C. L., and Price, D. L. (1990). "Precursor of amyloid protein in Alzheimer disease undergoes fast anterograde axonal transport." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1561-1565.

23. Buxbaum, J. D., Thinakaran, G., Koliatsos, V., O'Callahan, J., Slunt, H. H., Price, D. L., and Sisodia, S. S. (1998). "Alzheimer amyloid protein precursor in the rat hippocampus: transport and processing through the perforant path." J. Neurosci. 18:9629-9637.

24. Haass, C., and Selkoe, D. J. (1993). "Cellular processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein and the genesis of amyloid beta-peptide." Cell 75:1039-1042.

25. Sahasrabudhe, S. R., Spruyt, M. A., Muenkel, H. A., Blume, A. J., Vitek, M. P., and Jacobsen, J. S. (1992). "Release of amino-terminal fragments from amyloid precursor protein reporter and mutated derivatives in cultured cells." J. Biol. Chem. 267:25602-25608.

26. Sisodia, S. S. (1992). "Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleavage by a membrane-bound protease." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:6075-6079.

27. Wong, P. C., Cai, H., Borchelt, D. R., and Price, D. L. (2002). "Genetically engineered mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases." Nat. Neurosci. 5:633-639.

28. Vassar, R., Bennett, B. D., Babu-Khan, S., Kahn, S., Mendiaz, E. A., Denis, P., Teplow, D. B., Ross, S., Amarante, P., Loeloff, R., Luo, Y., Fisher, S., Fuller, J., Edenson, S., Lile, J., Jarosinski, M. A., Biere, A. L., Curran, E., Burgess, T., Louis, J. C., Collins, F., Treanor, J., Rogers, G., and Citron, M. (1999). "Beta-secretase cleavage of Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein by the transmembrane aspartic protease BACE." Science 286:735-741.

29. Vassar, R., and Citron, M. (2000). "Abeta-generating enzymes: recent advances in beta- and gamma-secretase research." Neuron 27:419-422.

30. Luo, Y., Bolon, B., Kahn, S., Bennett, B. D., Babu-Khan, S., Denis, P., Fan, W., Kha, H., Zhang, J., Gong, Y., Martin, L., Louis, J. C., Yan, Q., Richards, W. G., Citron, M., and Vassar, R. (2001). "Mice deficient in BACE1, the Alzheimer's beta-secretase, have normal phenotype and abolished beta-amyloid generation." Nat. Neurosci. 4:231-232.

31. Hardy, J., and Selkoe, D. J. (2002). "The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics." Science 297:353-356.

32. Ebinu, J. O., and Yankner, B. A. (2002). "A RIP tide in neuronal signal transduction." Neuron 34:499-502.

33. Mann, D. M., Iwatsubo, T., Ihara, Y., Cairns, N. J., Lantos, P. L., Bogdanovic, N., Lannfelt, L., Winblad, B., Maat-Schieman, M. L., and Rossor, M. N. (1996). "Predominant deposition of amyloid-beta 42(43) in plaques in cases of Alzheimer's disease and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage associated with mutations in the amyloid precursor protein gene." Am. J. Pathol. 148:1257-1266.

34. Pike, C. J., Walencewicz, A. J., Glabe, C. G., and Cotman, C. W. (1991). "Aggregation-related toxicity of synthetic beta-amyloid protein in hippocampal cultures." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 207:367-368.

35. Roher, A. E., Lowenson, J. D., Clarke, S., Wolkow, C., Wang, R., Cotter, R. J., Reardon, I. M., Zurcher-Neely, H. A., Heinrikson, R. L., Ball, M. J., and Greenberg, B. D. (1993). "Structural alterations in the peptide backbone of beta-amyloid core protein may account for its deposition and stability in Alzheimer's disease." J. Biol. Chem. 268:3072-3083.

36. Yankner, B. A., Dawes, L. R., Fisher, S., Villa-Komaroff, L., Oster-Granite, M. L., and Neve, R. L. (1989). "Neurotoxicity of a fragment of the amyloid precursor associated with Alzheimer's disease." Science 245:417-420.

37. Yankner, B. A. (1996). "Mechanisms of neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease." Neuron 16:921-932.

38. Suzuki, N., Cheung, T. T., Cai, X. D., Odaka, A., Otvos, L. Jr, Eckman, C., Golde, T. E., and Younkin, S. G. (1994). "An increased percentage of long amyloid beta protein secreted by familial amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP717) mutants." Science 264:1336-1340.

39. Saido, T. C., Iwatsubo, T., Mann, D. M., Shimada, H., Ihara, Y., and Kawashima, S. (1995). "Dominant and differential deposition of distinct beta-amyloid peptide species, A beta N3(pE), in senile plaques." Neuron 14:457-466.

40. Khachaturian, Z. S. (1985). "Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease." Arch. Neurol. 42:1097-1105.

41. Mirra, S. S., Heyman, A., McKeel, D., Sumi, S. M., Crain, B. J., Brownlee, L. M., Vogel, F. S., Hughes, J. P., van Belle, G., and Berg, L. (1991). "The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part II. Standardization of the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer's disease." Neurology 41:479-486.

42. Mirra, S. S., Hart ,M. N., and Terry, R. D. (1993). "Making the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. A primer for practicing pathologists." Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 117:132-144.

43. Mirra, S. S., Gearing, M., and Nash, F. (1997). "Neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer's disease." Neurology 49:S14-16.

44. Roth, M., Tomlinson, B. E., and Blessed, G. (1966). "Correlation between scores for dementia and counts of 'senile plaques' in cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects." Nature 209:109-110.

45. Hsiao, K., Chapman, P., Nilsen, S., Eckman, C., Harigaya, Y., Younkin, S., Yang, F., and Cole, G. (1996). "Correlative memory deficits, Abeta elevation, and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice." Science 274:99-102.

46. Hsiao, K. (1998). "Transgenic mice expressing Alzheimer amyloid precursor proteins." Exp. Gerontol. 33:883-889.

47. McGeer, P. L., and McGeer, E. G. (1998). "Mechanisms of cell death in Alzheimer disease— immunopathology." J. Neural. Transm. Suppl. 54:159-166.

48. Tanzi, R. E., and Bertram, L. (2001). "New frontiers in Alzheimer's disease genetics." Neuron 32:181-184.

49. Strittmatter, W. J., Saunders, A. M., Schmechel, D., Pericak-Vance, M., Enghild, J., Salvesen, G. S., and Roses, A. D. (1993). "Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial Alzheimer disease." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:1977-1981.

50. Strittmatter, W. J., and Roses, A. D. (1996). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease." Annu Rev. Neurosci. 19:53-77.

51. Strittmatter, W. J. (2001). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: signal transduction mechanisms." Biochem. Soc. Symp. 101-109.

52. Scheuner, D., Eckman, C., Jensen, M., Song, X., Citron, M., Suzuki, N., Bird, T. D., Hardy, J., Hutton, M., Kukull, W., Larson, E., Levy-Lahad, E., Viitanen, M., Peskind, E., Poorkaj, P., Schellenberg, G., Tanzi, R., Wasco, W., Lannfelt, L., Selkoe, D., and Younkin, S. (1996). "Secreted amyloid beta-protein similar to that in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease is increased in vivo by the presenilin 1 and 2 and APP mutations linked to familial Alzheimer's disease." Nat. Med. 2:864-870.

53. Mullan, M., Crawford, F., Axelman, K., Houlden, H., Lilius, L., Winblad, B., and Lannfelt, L. (1992). "A pathogenic mutation for probable Alzheimer's disease in the APP gene at the N-terminus of beta-amyloid." Nat. Genet. 1:345-347.

54. Goate, A., Chartier-Harlin, M. C., Mullan, M., Brown, J., Crawford, F., Fidani, L., Giuffra, L., Haynes, A., Irving, N., James, L., Mant, R., Newton, P., Rooke, K., Roques, C. T., Pericak-Vance, M., Roses, A., Williamson, R., Rossor, M., Owen, M., and Hardy, J. (1991). "Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer's disease." Nature 349:704-706.

55. Thinakaran, G., Borchelt, D. R., Lee, M. K., Slunt, H. H., Spitzer, L., Kim, G., Ratovitsky, T., Davenport, F., Nordstedt, C., Seeger, M., Hardy, J., Levey, A. I., Gandy, S. E., Jenkins, N. A., Copeland, N. G., Price, D. L., and Sisodia, S. S. (1996). "Endoproteolysis of presenilin 1 and accumulation of processed derivatives in vivo." Neuron 17:181-190.

56. Perez, R. G., Squazzo, S. L., and Koo, E. H. (1996). "Enhanced release of amyloid beta-protein from codon 670/671 "Swedish" mutant beta-amyloid precursor protein occurs in both secretory and endocytic pathways." J. Biol. Chem. 271:9100-9107.

57. Qian, S., Jiang, P., Guan, X. M., Singh, G., Trumbauer, M. E., Yu, H., Chen, H. Y., Van de Ploeg, L. H., and Zheng, H. (1998). "Mutant human presenilin 1 protects presenilin 1 null mouse against embryonic lethality and elevates Abeta1-42/43 expression." Neuron 20:611-617.

58. Citron, M., Oltersdorf, T., Haass, C., McConlogue, L., Hung, A. Y., Seubert, P., Vigo-Pelfrey, C., Lieberburg, I., and Selkoe, D. J. (1992). "Mutation of the beta-amyloid precursor protein in familial Alzheimer's disease increases beta-protein production." Nature 360:672-674.

59. Borchelt, D. R., Wong, P. C., Sisodia, S. S., and Price, D. L. (1998). "Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." Brain Pathol. 8:735-757.

60. Bertram, L., Blacker, D., Mullin, K., Keeney, D., Jones, J., Basu, S., Yhu, S., McInnis, M. G., Go, R. C., Vekrellis, K., Selkoe, D. J., Saunders, A. J., and Tanzi, R. E. (2000). "Evidence for genetic linkage of Alzheimer's disease to chromosome 10q." Science 290:2302-2303.

61. Ertekin-Taner, N., Graff-Radford, N., Younkin, L. H., Eckman, C., Baker, M., Adamson, J., Ronald, J., Blangero, J., Hutton, M., and Younkin, S. G. (2000). "Linkage of plasma Abeta42 to a quantitative locus on chromosome 10 in late-onset Alzheimer's disease pedigrees." Science 290:2303-2304.

62. Myers, A., Holmans, P., Marshall, H., Kwon, J., Meyer, D., Ramic, D., Shears, S., Booth, J., DeVrieze, F. W., Crook, R., Hamshere, M., Abraham, R., Tunstall, N., Rice, F., Carty, S., Lillystone, S., Kehoe, P., Rudrasingham, V., Jones, L., Lovestone, S., Perez-Tur, J., Williams, J., Owen, M. J., Hardy, J., and Goate, A. M. (2000). "Susceptibility locus for Alzheimer's disease on chromosome 10." Science 290:2304-2305.

63. Schmechel, D. E., Saunders, A. M., Strittmatter, W. J., Crain, B. J., Hulette, C. M., Joo, S. H., Pericak-Vance, M. A., Goldgaber, D., and Roses, A. D. (1993). "Increased amyloid beta-peptide deposition in cerebral cortex as a consequence of apolipoprotein E genotype in late-onset Alzheimer disease." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:9649-9653.

64. Brendza, R. P., Bales, K. R., Paul, S. M., and Holtzman, D. M. (2002). "Role of apoE/Abeta interactions in Alzheimer's disease: insights from transgenic mouse models." Mol. Psychiatry 7:132-135.

65. Corder, E. H., Saunders, A. M., Strittmatter, W. J., Schmechel, D. E., Gaskell, P. C., Small, G. W., Roses, A. D., Haines, J. L., and Pericak-Vance, M. A. (1993). "Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families." Science 261:921-923.

66. Holtzman, D. M., Bales, K. R., Tenkova, T., Fagan, A. M., Parsadanian, M., Sartorius, L. J., Mackey, B., Olney, J., McKeel, D., Wozniak, D., and Paul, S. M. (2000). "Apolipoprotein E isoform-dependent amyloid deposition and neuritic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:2892-2897.

67. Holtzman, D. M. (2001). "Role of apoe/Abeta interactions in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy." J. Mol. Neurosci. 17:147-155.

68. Herz, J., Beffert, U. (2000)."Apolipoprotein E receptors: linking brain development and Alzheimer's disease." Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 1:51-58.

69. Weeber, E. J., Beffert, U., Jones, C., Christian, J. M., Forster, E., Sweatt, J. D., and Herz, J. (2002). "Reelin and ApoE receptors cooperate to enhance hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning." J. Biol. Chem. 277(42):39944-39952

70. Chapman, P. F., Falinska, A. M., Knevett, S. G., and Ramsay, M. F. (2001). "Genes, models and Alzheimer's disease." Trends Genet. 17:254-261.

71. Janus, C., and Westaway, D. (2001). "Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease." Physiol. Behav. 73:873-886.

72. Irizarry, M. C., McNamara, M., Fedorchak, K., Hsiao, K., and Hyman, B. T. (1997). "APPSw transgenic mice develop age-related A beta deposits and neuropil abnormalities, but no neuronal loss in CA1." J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 56:965-973.

73. Westerman, M. A., Cooper-Blacketer, D., Mariash, A., Kotilinek, L., Kawarabayashi, T., Younkin, L. H., Carlson, G. A., Younkin, S. G., and Ashe, K. H. (2002). "The relationship between Abeta and memory in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease." J. Neurosci. 22:1858-1867.

74. Dineley, K. T., Xia, X., Bui, D., Sweatt, J. D., and Zheng, H. (2002). "Accelerated plaque accumulation, associative learning deficits, and up-regulation of alpha 7 nicotinic receptor protein in transgenic mice co-expressing mutant human presenilin 1 and amyloid precursor proteins." J. Biol. Chem. 277:22768-22780.

75. Chapman, P. F., White, G. L., Jones, M. W., Cooper-Blacketer, D., Marshall, V. J., Irizarry, M., Younkin, L., Good, M. A., Bliss, T. V., Hyman, B. T., Younkin, S. G., and Hsiao, K. K. (1999). "Impaired synaptic plasticity and learning in aged amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice." Nat. Neurosci. 2:271-276.

76. Corcoran, K. A., Lu, Y., Turner, R. S., and Maren, S. (2002). "Overexpression of hAPPswe impairs rewarded alternation and contextual fear conditioning in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease." Learn. Mem. 9:243-252.

77. Dineley, K. T., Westerman, M., Bui, D., Bell, K., Ashe, K. H., and Sweatt, J. D. (2001). "Beta-amyloid activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade via hippocampal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: in vitro and in vivo mechanisms related to Alzheimer's disease." J. Neurosci. 21:4125-4133.

78. McKhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price, D., and Stadlan, E. M. (1984). "Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease." Neurology 34:939-944.

79. Kuslansky, G., Buschke, H., Katz, M., Sliwinski, M., and Lipton, R. B. (2002). "Screening for Alzheimer's disease: the memory impairment screen versus the conventional three-word memory test." J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 50:1086-1091.

80. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., and McHugh, P. R. (1975). ""Mini-mental state." A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician." J. Psychiatr. Res. 12:189-198.

81. Blessed, G., Tomlinson, B. E., and Roth, M. (1968). "The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects." Br. J. Psychiatry 114:797-811.

82. Kumari, V., Mitterschiffthaler, M. T., and Sharma, T. (2002). "Neuroimaging to predict preclinical Alzheimer's disease." Hosp. Med. 63:341-345.

83. Whitehouse, P. J., Price, D. L., Clark, A. W., Coyle, J. T., and DeLong, M. R. (1981). "Alzheimer disease: evidence for selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis." Ann. Neurol. 10:122-126.

84. Davies, P., and Maloney, A. J. (1976). "Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease." Lancet 2:1403.

85. Davies, P. (1983). "The neurochemistry of Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia." Med. Res. Rev. 3:221-236.

86. Coyle, J. T., Price, D. L., and DeLong, M. R. (1983). "Alzheimer's disease: a disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation." Science 219:1184-1190.

87. Bartus, R. T., Dean, R. L. 3rd, Beer, B., and Lippa, A. S. (1982). "The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction." Science 217:408-414.

88. Frolich, L. (2002). "The cholinergic pathology in Alzheimer's disease—discrepancies between clinical experience and pathophysiological findings." J. Neural Transm. 109:1003-1013.

89. Wang, H. Y., Lee, D. H., D'Andrea, M. R., Peterson, P. A., Shank, R. P., and Reitz, A. B. (2000). "beta-Amyloid(1-42) binds to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with high affinity. Implications for Alzheimer's disease pathology." J. Biol. Chem. 275:5626-5632.

90. Nagele, R. G., D'Andrea, M. R., Anderson, W. J., and Wang, H. Y. (2002). "Intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid(1-42) in neurons is facilitated by the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease." Neuroscience 110:199-211.

91. Nordberg, A., Hellstrom-Lindahl, E., Lee, M., Johnson, M., Mousavi, M., Hall, R., Perry, E., Bednar, I., and Court, J. (2002). "Chronic nicotine treatment reduces beta-amyloidosis in the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (APPsw)." J. Neurochem. 81:655-658.

92. Schenk, D., Barbour, R., Dunn, W., Gordon, G., Grajeda, H., Guido, T., Hu, K., Huang, J., Johnson-Wood, K., Khan, K., Kholodenko, D., Lee, M., Liao, Z., Lieberburg, I., Motter, R., Mutter, L., Soriano, F., Shopp, G., Vasquez, N., Vandevert, C., Walker, S., Wogulis, M., Yednock, T., Games, D., and Seubert, P. (1999). "Immunization with amyloid-beta attenuates Alzheimer-disease-like pathology in the PDAPP mouse." Nature 400:173-177.

93. Janus, C., Pearson, J., McLaurin, J., Mathews, P. M., Jiang, Y., Schmidt, S. D., Chishti, M. A., Horne, P., Heslin, D., French, J., Mount, H. T., Nixon, R. A., Mercken, M., Bergeron, C., Fraser, P. E., St George-Hyslop, P., and Westaway, D. (2000). "A beta peptide immunization reduces behavioural impairment and plaques in a model of Alzheimer's disease." Nature 408:979-982.

94. Morgan, D., Diamond, D. M., Gottschall, P. E., Ugen, K. E., Dickey, C., Hardy, J., Duff, K., Jantzen, P., DiCarlo, G., Wilcock, D., Connor, K., Hatcher, J., Hope, C., Gordon, M., and Arendash, G. W. (2000). "A beta peptide vaccination prevents memory loss in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease." Nature 408:982-985.

95. Dodart, J. C., Bales, K. R., Gannon, K. S., Greene, S. J., DeMattos, R. B., Mathis, C., DeLong, C. A., Wu, S., Wu, X., Holtzman, D. M., and Paul, S. M. (2002). "Immunization reverses memory deficits without reducing brain Abeta burden in Alzheimer's disease model." Nat. Neurosci. 5:452-457.

96. Bard, F., Cannon, C., Barbour, R., Burke, R. L., Games, D., Grajeda, H., Guido, T., Hu, K., Huang, J., Johnson-Wood, K., Khan, K., Kholodenko, D., Lee, M., Lieberburg, I., Motter, R., Nguyen, M., Soriano, F., Vasquez, N., Weiss, K., Welch, B., Seubert, P., Schenk, D., and Yednock, T. (2000). "Peripherally administered antibodies against amyloid beta-peptide enter the central nervous system and reduce pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease." Nat. Med. 6:916-919.

97. Snowdon, D. A., Kemper, S. J., Mortimer, J. A., Greiner, L. H., Wekstein, D. R., and Markesbery, W. R. (1996). "Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study." JAMA 275:528-532.

98. Masliah, E., Sisk, A., Mallory, M., and Games, D.

(2001). "Neurofibrillary pathology in transgenic mice overexpressing V717F beta-amyloid precursor protein." J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60:357-368.

99. Chen, G., Chen, K. S., Knox, J., Inglis, J., Bernard, A., Martin, S. J., Justice, A., McConlogue, L., Games, D., Freedman, S. B., and Morris, R. G. (2000). "A learning deficit related to age and beta-amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease." Nature 408:975-979.

100. Lewis, J., Dickson, D. W., Lin, W. L., Chisholm, L., Corral, A., Jones, G., Yen, S. H., Sahara, N., Skipper, L., Yager, D., Eckman, C., Hardy, J., Hutton, M., and McGowan, E. (2001). "Enhanced neurofibrillary degeneration in transgenic mice expressing mutant tau and APP." Science 293:1487-1491.

101. Chishti, M. A., Yang, D. S., Janus, C., Phinney, A. L., Horne, P., Pearson, J., Strome, R., Zuker, N., Loukides, J., French, J., Turner, S., Lozza, G., Grilli, M., Kunicki, S., Morissette, C., Paquette, J., Gervais, F., Bergeron, C., Fraser, P. E., Carlson, G. A., George-Hyslop, P. S., and Westaway, D. (2001). "Early-onset amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits in transgenic mice expressing a double mutant form of amyloid precursor protein 695." J. Biol. Chem. 276:21562-21570.

102. Arendash, G. W., King, D. L., Gordon, M. N., Morgan, D., Hatcher, J. M., Hope, C. E., and Diamond, D. M. (2001). "Progressive, age-related behavioral impairments in transgenic mice carrying both mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 transgenes." Brain Res. 891:42-53.

103. Dewachter, I., Reverse, D., Caluwaerts, N., Ris, L., Kuiperi, C., Van den Haute, C., Spittaels, K., Umans, L., Serneels, L., Thiry, E., Moechars, D., Mercken, M., Godaux, E., and Van Leuven, F.

(2002). "Neuronal deficiency of presenilin 1 inhibits amyloid plaque formation and corrects hippocampal long-term potentiation but not a cognitive defect of amyloid precursor protein [V717I] transgenic mice." J. Neurosci. 22:3445-3453.

104. Shen, J., Bronson, R. T., Chen, D. F., Xia, W., Selkoe, D. J., and Tonegawa, S. (1997). "Skeletal and CNS defects in Presenilin-1-deficient mice." Cell 89:629-639.

105. Feng, R., Rampon, C., Tang, Y. P., Shrom, D., Jin, J., Kyin, M., Sopher, B., Miller, M. W., Ware, C. B., Martin, G. M., Kim, S. H., Langdon, R. B., Sisodia, S. S., and Tsien, J. Z. (2001). "Deficient neurogenesis in forebrain-specific presenilin-1 knockout mice is associated with reduced clearance of hippocampal memory traces." Neuron 32:911-926.

106. Veinbergs, I., Jung, M. W., Young, S. J., Van Uden, E., Groves, P. M., and Masliah, E. (1998). "Altered long-term potentiation in the hippocampus of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice." Neurosci. Lett. 249:71-74.

107. Krzywkowski, P., Ghribi, O., Gagne, J., Chabot, C., Kar, S., Rochford, J., Massicotte, G., and Poirier, J. (1999). "Cholinergic systems and long-term potentiation in memory-impaired apolipoprotein E-deficient mice." Neuroscience 92:1273-1286.

108. Dawson, G. R., Seabrook, G. R., Zheng, H., Smith, D. W., Graham, S., O'Dowd, G., Bowery, B. J., Boyce, S., Trumbauer, M. E., Chen, H. Y., Van der Ploeg, L. H., and Sirinathsinghji, D. J. (1999). "Age-related cognitive deficits, impaired long-term potentiation and reduction in synaptic marker density in mice lacking the beta-amyloid precursor protein." Neuroscience 90:1-13.

109. Herreman, A., Hartmann, D., Annaert, W., Saftig, P., Craessaerts, K., Serneels, L., Umans, L., Schrijvers, V., Checler, F., Vanderstichele, H., Baekelandt, V., Dressel, R., Cupers, P., Huylebroeck, D., Zwijsen, A., Van Leuven, F., and De Strooper, B. (1999). "Presenilin 2 deficiency causes a mild pulmonary phenotype and no changes in amyloid precursor protein processing but enhances the embryonic lethal phenotype of presenilin 1 deficiency." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:11872-11877.

110. Huber, G., Marz, W., Martin, J. R., Malherbe, P., Richards, J. G., Sueoka, N., Ohm, T., and Hoffmann, M. M. (2000). "Characterization of transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein E4(C112R) and apolipoprotein E4(L28P; C112R)." Neuroscience 101:211-218.

111. Watson, A. A., Fairlie, D. P., and Craik, D. J. (1998). "Solution structure of methionine-oxidized amyloid beta-peptide (1-40). Does oxidation affect conformational switching?" Biochemistry 37:12700-12706.

112. Price, D. L., Sisodia, S. S., and Borchelt, D. R. (1998). "Genetic neurodegenerative diseases: the human illness and transgenic models." Science 282:1079-1083.

113. Khachaturian, Z. S., and Radebaugh, T. S. (1996). Alzheimer's disease : cause(s), diagnosis, treatment, and care. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Through the Glass Darkly J. David Sweatt, Acrylic on canvas, 2002

Advanced Memory Techniques

Advanced Memory Techniques

A course in techniques and skills for mentalists, magicians and students. For students, improve your grades with less effort! But this book is also.... The ideal for any stage mentalist or magician by establishing credibility of amazing skills with an easy to follow instructional book on using the amazing power of your memory.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment