Arc And Cellular Reactivation

BOX 1 Neuronal activity-dependent arc expression. Arc expression defines CA1 neuronal ensembles that encode distinct environments. Rats explored environments designated A and B. After being placed in context A, some groups of animals were placed back in A or placed in a different context (B). Arc expression in the nucleus □ or cytoplasm ■ was assessed. The time delay in Arc transport from nucleus to cytoplasm allows investigating whether the same cells are activated when an animal is re-placed in the same environment. "Double" staining means that Arc is found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, indicating that the cell has been activated twice by the first and second exposures to context A. The distinct staining profiles seen in A/A and A/B groups demonstrate that the induction of Arc transcription in CA1 is highly specific to the nature of the behavioral experience. The A/ immediate, A/ delay and A/B/delay groups define the temporal properties of Arc expression. From each rat (n = 3 rats per group), 97-146 (mean, 120) neurons were counted; the total number of neurons analyzed for this experiment was 2,157. The percentage of positive cells for each staining profile was determined for each individual rat; reported values indicate the group mean. *p < .002 relative to caged controls, ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc analysis. #p < .05 relative to the other two cell populations for that group by paired t-test. Data, figure, and legend reproduced from Guzowski, McNaughton, Barnes, and Worley (31), with permission from Nature Publishing Group.

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