that are hypothesized to be involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory.

Our current understanding is based on a foundation laid many years ago. During the beginning and middle of the last century, studies by a number of experimental psychologists led to an explosive advancement of our understanding of the basics of learned behaviors. Classic studies by Pavlov, Skinner, and Lashley, to name a few who used nonhuman models, laid the foundation for much of modern laboratory memory research. These studies even received a reasonable degree of public recognition—there's a line from a Rolling Stones song that goes "Girl, when you call my name, I salivate like Pavlov's dog." How many experiments have ever reached that level of popular recognition? These studies have reached the level of iconism; running rats through mazes is now symbolic in the public eye of neuroscience studies in general.

Of course, rat maze learning is but the tip of the iceberg of modern rodent behavioral research. In this chapter, we will discuss a number of specific examples of contemporary rodent behavioral paradigms used to study learning and memory. In reviewing these models, it is important to always keep in mind that when we do a memory experiment at least three things are happening with the animal: they are learning (forming a memory), they have generated a stable record of the event (a memory), and they are recalling the memory in order to produce a detectable read-out. The complexity of these several processes is in many ways obscured by the apparent simplicity of the learning behaviors themselves.

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