The flip side of hypothyroidism is the syndrome called thyrotoxicosis, which is due to excess circulating levels of thyroid hormone caused by autoimmune or malignant disease or by excessive hormone supplementation in people with thyroid deficiency. The clinical signs of thyrotoxicosis are hyperactivity, anxiety, and emotional instability. Memory loss can accompany poor attention and concentration resulting from the hyperactive state. Physical signs include heart palpitations, muscle weakness, and sleeplessness. For those receiving too much thyroid medication, the treatment is straight-forward: lower the dose. For people with thyrotoxicosis due to autoimmune or other causes, there are effective antithyroid medications; surgical removal of part of the thyroid gland is occasionally needed.
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