10x Your Memory Power
What is actually going on in your mind when you are using your memory is, not surprisingly, extremely complex. Rather than focusing on any one single area, scientists increasingly think that a number of different ones are involved, often almost simultaneously, depending on the particular kind of experience. It seems likely that To understand your memory, it may be helpful to have a much clearer idea of how many different activities are encompassed by this extraordinary capability. I started this section by distinguishing between laying down a memory and recalling it when needed, but there are many other ways of looking at memory that may also help you to be clearer about what you mean.
This statement is made despite the following counterarguments Your memory does decline with age, but only if it is not used. Conversely, if it is used, it will continue to improve throughout your lifetime. Your memory is the music. psychologists then mixed 100 photographs with the original 1000, and asked the people to select those they had not seen the first time through. Everyone, regardless of how he described his normal memory, was able to identify almost every photograph he had seen - as well as each one that he had not seen previously. They were not necessarily able to remember the order in which the photographs had been presented, but they could definitely remember the image - an example that confirms the common human experience of being better able to remember a face than the name attached to it. This particular problem is easily dealt with by applying the Memory Techniques. 10 The Memory Techniques The Memory Techniques, or mnemonics, were a system...
Exercising the brain can take many forms. It is essential to keep your mind curious, occupied, and creative. Maintaining an active social life as you grow older is crucial, because it is through interaction with other people that your intellect stays sharp. Be mentally active, and cultivate your memory skills to avoid losing them. Several simple strategies, summarized in the table below, can be used to maintain and even boost your memory skills (see more details in chapter 6). Regularity and consistency are necessary for these techniques to have any long-term impact.
Actors learn to memorize long lines and passages. Have you ever heard proverbs and sayings that you liked, but never bothered to commit them to your memory Like new vocabulary words, to incorporate a new saying to your repertory of picturesque speech, it really doesn't take that much time or trouble at all. To illustrate a point or to make a subject entertaining, anecdotal material is often helpful whether it is of your own creation or from others. To get in the frame of mind to memorize sayings, it can help to create some for yourself first to prime the mental pump so to speak. Think for 60 seconds and contrive 2 sayings of your own originality, and write them down. For example Now memorize the following 3 sayings and their authors in the next 5 minutes and show yourself how simple it is. When you do this, give your recitations of the passages a singing intonation to throw the information to the right brain. For most right-handed people, it can also improve your auditory recall and...
Pay attention to what needs to be learned or remembered. This seems obvious, but it's easy to lose track and forget things when you are pulled in many directions by personal or career demands. Reducing stress, and making a strong effort to maintain your concentration whenever necessary, are essential to improving your memory.
I was once given the task of memorizing the order of six separate packs of cards on a live TV show in Switzerland. Just before going on air, I mm made the fatal mistake of asking how many people would be watching. 'Oh, about 40 million,' said the producer nonchalantly, unaware of the terror he was instilling in me. T he programme was broadcast right across Europe. I was given my cue and duly stepped out onto the set and into the homes of 40 million Europeans. It really was quite a lot of people. I started to memorize the decks. Everything went like clockwork until the host asked me to name the 42nd card in each pack. I couldn't stop thinking about the size of the audience. I was allowed one error throughout the whole ordeal, providing I corrected it immediately. There was prize money to be won ( 3,500), but I was more concerned about not fluffing. After an agonizing pause as I frantically re-grouped my thoughts, I spotted what was going wrong and called out the correct answer, much to...
Much of memory concerns state-related associations. In one experiment, students memorized a given set of words in the presence of a certain odor. When the students were given the same set of words the next day in the presence of the same odor, they showed much better recall than a control group learning the same words and exposed to no odor on either day. With people who have vivid visualization abilities, just imagining an odor while learning something can work equally as well. During the day every time you smell an unfamiliar odor, find out what it was and commit it to your memory storehouse. Correct identifications of smells and odors make you more aware of your surroundings, and all connective brain pathways established in your memory make other areas more accessible and easily usable. The more you recognize available information in this world, the more adequate and versatile you become. In emergency situations, many people suffer needless injury or die simply because of lack of...
It is believed that singing songs in the Greek and Roman times constituted the reiteration of a passage or a tale with perhaps only a slight intonation to the voice. Before Homer's day, memorizers called bards passed along the tales of the Trojan war and other stories of the Bronze Age for hundreds of years only to have them eventually transcribed and recorded by Homer for posterity. Songs and long poems were related by bards in total completeness by memory alone, and it is not unlikely that such bardic memorizing involved some form of intonation to the voice. as a 'sleep-learning' tape (see Exercise -- Sleep-Learning ) produces good results. Repeat each bit of information 3 times in the 4-second speak, 4-second pause tempo as described above. If the intonation of the taped voice is varied from soft, to commanding, to normal each time or even sung intermittently, the right brain 'attends' to the material more easily. If the voice is from a member of the opposite sex, the memorizing...
If your memory is sound and you have excellent general health habits, you might justifiably ask why you need to even bother about age-related memory loss. My answer is quite simple if you are willing to suffer a gradual dwindling in your memory starting in your forties and fifties, and continuing into your sixties and seventies, then you should not waste any of your time or energy worrying about it. But you probably belong to the majority of people who look forward to their golden years with hope and a positive attitude. You want to function at your peak physical and mental capacity for the longest possible period of time, so that your later years will truly be golden. If you belong to this group, now is the right time to begin taking steps to prevent age-related memory loss. Grandma Still Has a Great Memory 3. Medications to improve your memory. These include a variety of promemory medications alternative, over-the-counter, and prescription. Some of them are useful in preventing or...
It won't come as a surprise to learn that if you want to memorize a series of moves, you should use a simple journey. Each move, represented by a person, is assigned to a different stage. For example, if White opens by moving a Pawn to b4, you imagine the weatherman Bernard Davey (b B 4 D BD Bernard Davey) pointing at a weather map at the first stage of your journey. It follows that if you want to remember the opening six moves (i.e. six white moves, six black moves), you need a journey with twelve stages. Try memorizing these typical opening shots This is how I memorize some of them
Once you have committed your 20 objects to memory reinforce them until they are etched in your long term memory bank. Once this has been done you can use them whenever you like. This memorization should be similar to other mental frameworks you have developed such as, the multiplication table or the alphabet. Whenever you want to use your personal memory peg, just look into your long term memory and collect the information you need. Now it's time to learn how to use your imagination to associate other items with your memory peg objects. You'll be amazed how much fun it is to remember 20 new items in the order they are listed. A sample list is provided on the next page. By associating each item to your memory peg object, you should learn how to remember all items on the list. Once you see how it's done using the list provided, you'll be able to associate any similar list to your personal memory pegs.
There must be no sounds, no people Guildford, for example, becomes a ghost town. This will ensure that any previous characters or items you might have memorized are wiped out. You are erasing the video tape in anticipation of new information. Your brain is bound to feel a bit sdff to begin with, but you should aim to do each card in fifteen to twenty seconds. I have been working out every day for the last four years. Remember to use as many of your senses as you can. Take your time if it is all proving too difficult. Loosen up with some stretching exercises flex your memory touch the toes of your imagination with a few fantasies.
Okay, so we don't all live our lives like Mr Bean. And these days, most of us carry around pens, filofaxes, even personal organizers. But there will always be occasions when we are caught out and need to memorize numbers. In the following chapters, I will explain how to remember numbers (up to ten digits) and, in particular, telephone numbers. This new language is at the heart of what I have christened the DOMINIC SYSTEM. (If you like acronyms, I have managed to work one out for D.O.M.I.N.I.e. Decipherment Of Mnemonically Interpreted Numbers Into Characters ) I originally designed it for competitions. Used properly, it eats numbers for breakfast. I can memorize 100 digits in a 100 seconds. Telephone numbers are small fry by comparison. (I explain how to crunch 100-digit monsters in Chapter 22.) If a telegraph pole is your symbol for 1, imagine Yeltsin shinning up it to mend the wires. (Telecommunications aren't all they could be in the former Soviet Union.) Picture John Major feeding...
A simple journey can radically improve the efficiency of your declarative memory. It gives you the best possible start if you are learning to play golf or rebuilding an aspect of your game. Nothing demonstrates this better than the golf swing, the bane of so many golfers' lives. Instructors are always encouraging players to tick off a mental checklist of dos and don'ts before each swing easier said than done in the heat of a game. Using a journey, however, you can memorize a whole series of detailed instructions, effortlessly running through them whenever you want.
Thomas Acquinas, a patron saint, was instrumental in making the art of trained memory a devotional and ethical art. During the Middle Ages, monks and philosophers were virtually the only people who applied trained memory techniques. Philosophers in the 17th Century taught memory systems. Francis Bacon has one in his book, The Advancement of Learning. Some scholars insist that Leibniz invented calculus while searching for a memory system that would aid in memorizing numbers. This section of MEMORY SKILLS IN BUSINESS will cover the major memory systems and or techniques as well as items contributing to memory. Following is a list of items covered in Part II
The guest list bears an uncanny resemblance to the people you memorized for the dominic system. This time, however, the characters represent years, from 1900 to 1999. Take Benny Hill, for example (or your equivalent character suggested by BH). Using the dominic system, he represents 1928 (2 B 8 H). Or Betty Boothroyd, the Speaker of the House of Commons. She represents 1922 (2 B 2 B).
This is not as daunting as it might sound. For each new pack, I plan a new journey. When I memorized 35 packs of cards, I had previously mapped out 35 different routes. I don't expect many people to attempt 35 packs. You have to be slightly unhinged to put yourself through that particular agony. (It took me thirteen hours.) But if you do want to move on to multiple packs, there arc one or two tips and pitfalls to look out for. In the event, there were 44 doubles (a jack of spades followed by another jack of spades) and one treble (9 of clubs, 9 of clubs, 9 of clubs). Some memory experts have complained of confusion when memorizing more than one pack, and I suspect this is because they are not using the journey method. The number of packs you can remember is restricted only by the number of journeys you can devise. You will be surprised at just how much information your memory can store and recall.
Consequently, if you want to remember 011100111111, you just have to memorize the complex image for 2533 Brian Epstein flexing a cane. (25 BE Brian Epstein 33 CC Charlie Chaplin, whose action is flexing a cane). Take another example. How would you set about memorizing 011011100111 It looks a fairly horrendous task until you start to break it down Once you have familiarized yourself with the above (the recurring patterns make it easier than it looks), try memorizing a 60-digit binary number. Daunting though it may sound, you only need to remember five complex images, each one representing 12 digits. Choose a simple journey with five stages, and place each image at the corresponding stage. For example, this is how I would memorize If, in due course, a record is set for memorizing the most number of randomly generated binary digits, I predict that it will be in the region of 150,000. Using my system, three binary digits are being represented by one base-10 digit if I manage to memorize...
The method I am about to show you is so effective and simple that I would expect you to learn a new language in a matter of days and weeks rather than months and years. Foreign words can be learnt and memorized after just one reading at an accelerated rate of approximately 50 to 150 words per hour. This means that a basic vocabulary of 2,000 words could be learnt after just twenty hours' study. My personal best, using this method, is 320 new German words in an hour (after one sighting of each word). In the 1991 MEMORIAD, I won the the language event by memorizing the most number of Chinese words in fifteen minutes. Not bad for a dyslexic slow learner If ever a subject was tailor-made for my approach to memory then learning languages is it. When you learnt how to memorize a list, you used location in the form of a simple journey. You used location again to remember names
Soon after I had learnt how to memorize playing cards, it occurred to me that there must be a way of cashing in on my new found ability. Blackjack m seemed like a natural target. It involved skill (unlike roulette or dice, which are based on pure chance), and I was already familiar with the game. I also felt there was a score to be settled I had lost many more times than I had ever won I had always thought that beating the bank was a romantic but ill-con-ceived notion - the stuff of fiction and a sure-fire way of losing even more money. It might be possible in a Graham Greene novel, but never in real life. Memorizing thirty-five decks of cards put a different complexion on things.
I have had to remember some daft things in my time. I was once asked by Jonathan Ross to memorize the first word on every page of Jilly Cooper's novel Polo for his TV show. The paperback version consists of no less than 766 pages. I set about this unusual task by planning eight journeys, each with fifty stages. I would need 383 stages in total if I placed two words on each one. To make the words more memorable, I gave them symbols, usually people 'and' became 'Andrew', 'the' became 'Thea', 'you' became 'ewe'. I received the book the day before the show was televised. By mid-afternoon, I had memorized all 766 words. Just before the show, copies of the book were handed out to 150 members of the studio audience. Each person was given a set page number. If they were chosen, they could call out their number and personally verify that I had memorized the right word. Thankfully, my sceptic shut up after that, and I could continue to demonstrate my memory skills in front of a trusting...
A list of ten items, whatever they are, should not present a challenge to our memory, and yet it does. Take a simple shopping list, for example. Try m memorizing the following, without writing any of it down, within one minute. Frustrating, isn't it Your memory has no problem at all recalling these everyday, mundane experiences (ironically, the forgettable things in life) and yet it can't recall a simple shopping list when required. If you were to take this If, like me, you found the first exercise a little depressing, revealing more about the ordinariness of your life than about your memory, you should enjoy this experiment. Try to imagine a day. Exaggerate and distort your normal routine Your dream day might be quite different from mine, of course. But if you were to put this book down and I were to ask you in an hour's time to recall the fruits of your wild imagination, you should be able to remember everything you dreamt up. Imagined events are almost as easy to recall as real...
By applying rote memory techniques, it would take most people fifteen to thirty minutes to remember the names of the eleven principles. However, by using a substitution mnemonic device, this time can be cut in half. Each general principle is listed below with space next to it for you to either draw a picture of an object (or person), or write the word of the object. The first principal has been completed for you to better demonstrate how substitution works.
It is important to have background experience or knowledge to help form associations. It can be difficult to understand anything that stands alone. Isolated events have limited meaning. One way to improve your memory about a subject is to learn more about the background of that subject. For example, the limited background you have received thus far from reading this book has improved your knowledge about how the memory works and your ability to form associations.
To improve your memory ability apply the following ten rules. If it helps, take this page of the book to your desk (or refrigerator) any place you can review it often. 7. Practice using your memory pegs. At first review them at least three times a day. Practice by associating 20 new objects on a regular basis and review your progress. 10. Practice your memory exercises. Share them with family or friends. Make a game of memory improvement. You'll be delighted by the results.
Whenever you are choosing a journey to learn information, try to ensure that it has some physical relevance to what you are memorizing. Not everyone knows the layout of Hastings, but there are many ways in which to incorporate the theme of war. Begin at a gun shop in the high street, or a local castle. The Dominic system can be used to memorize additional information. In this case, I also want to remember that the Civil War ended in 1645. I imagine Duke Ellington (D 4 E 5) playing the piano in the corner, oblivious to the scenes going on all around him.
I once bet a friend of mine that I could memorize the result of any number of coin flips as fast as he could spin the coin. He accepted the bet, think-m ing that he was on to a winner. A separate referee recorded the results if it was tails, he wrote down 1, if it was heads, he wrote down 0. I have to admit that there aren't many practical applications for memorizing 300 flips of a coin, other than taking money off gullible friends. But the ability to memorize binary numbers, which is how I knew whether the coin was heads or tails, opens up a whole range of possibilities.
One of the secrets of remembering cards at speed is trust. You are bound to ask yourself how quickly you can move on to the next stage. But how do you know when a person has sunk in No light flashes, no bell rings. To be honest, you are never going to know for certain when something is secure in your memory you have just got to go on trust.
I mention this particular occasion to give you an example of the sort of tricks you can do, once you have learnt how to memorize a pack of cards in order. With a little concentration, you should be able to recite the cards backwards as well as forwards. You simply move along your journey in reverse order.
A journey is not always the best way to remember dates. Faced with a long sequence of events or people, you will be hard pressed to find a more efficient method. However, there are occasions when we want to memorize individual instances in time, one-offs. The best way to remember these is by using random locations, as opposed to the ordered sequence of a journey. If you were asked to memorize all of them in order, you would use a journey. For now, imagine that you are given one or two of these to learn during the course of a lesson, or a guided tour. This is how to remember them
Before I became a full-time Memory Man, I once applied for a job at an airport. Sensing that I had to pull something special out of the hat if I was h to get it, I decided to swot up on some background information. 1 memorized every piece of data I could find about the company, and I also learnt all I could about each airline that operated out of the airport.
If you want to memorize information about other groups of countries, Africa for example, or the ever-burgeoning number of independent republics in the former Soviet Union, use more journeys. Alternatively, you can use an image of a department store. Assign each country a key image and then allocate them to a floor. Depending 011 the number of countries you want to remember, your department store could have a basement, ground floor, first, second, and third floors, each one covering two or three countries.
To memorize this extra detail, I imagine Charles Atlas (who is waiting for his supper, courtesy of Bob, my agent) beating on the goalposts crying, 'Order ' There is no real limit to the amount of facts that you can store. Enthusiasts memorize the entire line-up of each team, including subsdtutes, the goalscor-ers, the minute in which they scored, and no doubt the names of the referee's two children. If the will is there, it's perfectly possible. You just have to expand the geographical layout of your journey. I have printed out below every FA Cup result since 1872, broken down into Year (stage), Winner (person), Loser (action), Score (person) to make it easier to memorize.
One of the events at the first World Memory Championships (Memoriad) in October 1991 was to memorize as many moves as possible from a game of chess. Moves had to be remembered in sequence. We were each given five minutes to study the game and no mistakes were permitted. The moves, were listed on a piece of paper and had to be remembered in sequence. I managed to recall the first 11 moves. In chess, one move includes the repositioning of a white piece and a black piece. In effect, I had memorized the first 23 individual moves (12 white, 11 black) without error. This was sufficient to win the event and helped rne to win the overall championship. I appreciated these objections, but I also knew that neither myself nor Jonathan Hancock, who came second, had been thinking of anything to do with chess as we memorized move after move. We had both been lost in our own mnemonic worlds, utterly divorced from the board and its pieces. While I was travelling around a casde in Ireland, Jonathan...
The next key function of memory training (that uses visualization) is the process of association. Association and imaging interact continuously. This occurs because whatever appears in the mind must be introduced, and associated with something already there. Your memory depends on an organized system of association, Answering these questions will help you form a complete picture of the item and help you remember it. You will learn what there is to know about the situation, and then may accept or reject it. You'll find that when issues are supported by answers to these key questions, they will stay in your memory,
Harry Lorayne is one of the great memory men of the twentieth century - a fine performer, actor and lecturer. Hundreds of companies, including the likes of IBM, US Steel and General Electric, have hired him to conduct seminars on mind power and memory training. And he has appeared on just about every American TV show, including Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show, Good Morning America, and The Today Show. 'We relied on your memory systems for sanity. We applied them and learned literally thousands of foreign words, poems, speeches, mathematics, electronics, classical music, philosophy, the list is endless. Just wanted to tell you how much your systems meant to all of us in captivity.'
Account of the Greek's use of imagery. The famous anecdote about Simonides and the banquet suggests that he was equally adept at memorizing people as he was places, or loci. There is also an extant fragment of Greek text (Dialexis, 400 BC) which implies that the Greeks thought of the gods Mars or Achilles to remember courage, and Vulcan to remember metal working.
In Chapter 2, you learnt how to memorize a list of ten items of shopping using images and a simple journey around your house. Treat this checklist in exactly the same way, except that I suggest you choose a route around your clubhouse. Allocate a different point to each stage the car park covers your grip, for example the changing room covers your club-face the driving range covers ball position the video booth covers stance and so on.
And the thirteenth-century Scholastics had given it, and set about introducing mnemonics to the lay masses. He encouraged people to look out for suitable journeys on their holidays and recommended the use of sexual images. The practical handbook was publicized by his own memory feats he memorized 20,000 legal points, 200 speeches of Cicero, and the entire canon law. (Give me Trivial Pursuit any day.)
The action should also be as versatile as possible. Later on, when you are memorizing longer numbers, actions and persons are going to fit together like pieces of a jigsaw. It's possible to imagine Barry Norman driving a bus, for example the bus driver can operate a film projector an image of him could even be projected. If the person does not have an obvious action peculiar to him or her, you must discard that person. The importance of actions will become apparent later. Suffice it to say, they make life very easy when you arc memorizing more than two digits - telephone numbers, for example. Once you have memorized the cast, you have finished the hardest part of this book. They are the key to remembering telephone numbers, credit cards, addresses, any number you want. They even hold the key to memorizing the entire twentieth-century calendar. HOW TO MEMORIZE TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS Let's assume that you want to memorize the number of somebody's house. A friend of yours lives at number 74,...
In the near future, I plan to set a new world record by memorizing the first 50,000 decimal places of pi. Pi (symbol n) denotes the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. It is a very strange, almost transcendental number it cannot be expressed as an exact fraction and there are no continuously recurring digits (unlike 10 divided by 3, which equals 3.3333333 etc.). Choose a journey with 25 stages. Even though you are faced with a 100-digit number, you are only going to memorize 25 complex images, each one placed at a different stage. Choose somewhere familiar for your journey and keep it solely for memorizing long numbers. I start my route at a patisserie, as good a place as any when you are remembering pi(e) In this case, 14 becomes Arthur Daley (14 AD), and 15 is the action of writing on a blackboard (15 AE Albert Einstein, whose action is writing on a blackboard). Your complex image, therefore, is the sight of Arthur Daley scrawling complicated formulae on a blackboard....
Associating one thought to another is the basis of the Link System. A basic rule in remembering a new piece of information is that it must be associated to something you already know, or to remember it in some ridiculous way. Doing it forces an original awareness that is necessary to remember anything. Whenever you concentrate, or use imagination, you will be forced to consciously form associations which will aid your memory. Assume you want to memorize the following ten items in sequence airplane, tree, envelope, earring, bucket, sing, basketball, salami, star, nose. First you need to picture an airplane in your mind. Next, link the tree and airplane together in a ridiculous way such as an airplane growing on a tree. What you've just done is associate two things in a ridiculous way. Memory pegs will provide you with a system that can be used in a wide variety of situations. Instead of being stuck with a non-controlled association process. You can adapt the system you build. A memory...
Location is, as ever, essential when remembering phone numbers. It is no good memorizing the number in isolation. It belongs to someone and we must connect the above image to that person. In most cases, the simplest way of doing this is by setting the scene at the house or office of the person whose number we are trying to recall. I remember the number of the person who delivers our logs, for example, by setting the corresponding scene outside his house.
The ram's testicles arc a more unusual aspect of the image. Frances Yates, in her discussion on the subject, suggests that the Latin word for testicle (testicu-lus) would have reminded the lawyer of the word for witnesses (testes). In another part of Ad Herrenium, she points out, the author gives an example of an image ('Domitius raising his hands to heaven while he is lashed by the Marcii Reges') that is designed to remind the student of rhetoric of a particular sentence ('domum itionem reges ). The only obvious connection is in the sound of the words. I subscribe to this interpretation. When I am memorizing someone's name, for example, I often use images that include something that sounds similar to the person's name.
The Greeks had two types of images one for memorizing things, arguments, or notions and one for remembering single words. Each image would be placed at a different locus. As he was reciting his poetry, Simonides would have moved around his mental journey, recalling each image as he went. Lawyers would remind themselves of the details of a case in this way orators would know their next subject or topic. (Interestingly, the English word 'topic' comes from the Greek topoi, which means place or locus.)
If you want to memorize Trivial Pursuit, the Annual Edition is a good place to start. It has 1,500 questions. As I said earlier, you should aim to memorize them at a rate of three a minute. You may find it takes you considerably longer to begin with, but the process will speed up. In order for the information to be stored on a long term-basis, you must revise regularly.
What is the 16th decimal place to pi The first thing you did when you memorized pi was to divide up the 100 digits into 25 complex images, and locate each one at a separate stage. It follows that if you want to know which stage contains the 16th decimal point, you must divide 16 by 4.
Bruno joined the Dominican order when he was fifteen, and familiarized himself with the classical art of memory, through the works of Thomas Aquinas. He soon became widely known for his memory skills and performed in front of the pope, among others, before quitting the order.
Aitken was a professor of mathematics at the University of Edinburgh. He was one of those people who could make lightning-fast, complex mathematical calculations in his head. Although he was first and foremost a mathematician, his unusual memory skills deserve a mention. He once memorized the first 1,000 digits of pi and said it was like 'learning a Bach fugue'. It would appear that he arranged the digits in rows of fifty, each row comprising ten groups of five numbers. He would then read through them, adopting a certain rhythm.
It is not very easy to adopt my strategy without a trained memory. On a simple level, your overall concentration and powers of observation are so much sharper if you have worked on improving your memory. They need to be I am often sitting at the table for five or six hours without a break. And in today's casinos, you are being scrutinized from every possible angle. I have quite often found myself playing with three security cameras trained on my table, a croupier watching my every move and an inspector looking over my shoulder
How often have you wished that you were better able to remember details or experiences and then apply these memories to the task at hand When you are able to recall pertinent knowledge to solve a problem, come up with a new idea or answer a complex question, you are skillfully applying your memory. Our mind is a vast reservoir of integrated holigraphic systems composed of over 10 billion nerve cells. Scientists have scarcely tapped the surface of understanding how the human mind works. Although much has been learned, the nature of how memory functions still has many mysteries. Despite how little is really known, understanding how memory works and developing proven memory techniques will provide numerous personal and professional benefits. During the past fifteen years, thousands of people have improved their memories in a one-day memory improvement seminar which I conduct. Topics covered in this seminar are the basis of this book. Your memory will become increasingly trained if you...
To improve your memory, it is critical that you develop your ability to observe. Most often we neglect to practice the habit of careful observation. When we don't keenly observe an event, our memory won't register it in such a way we can recall it later. If we are not in the habit of paying attention to detail much will escape us.
Doing them can be enjoyable so have fun The 5. Memorize some statistics that are of interest to you (i.e. the lifetime batting averages of some favorite ball players the height of the five tallest mountains in the world the distance to the nearest star, etc.) and for fun quote them to your friends. Memorize the names and phone numbers of ten important customers, clients or co-workers.
Fay attention to what you want to remember. Attending to one thing at a time will help you clarify the task or event. Inattention due to lack of interest or poor concentration will impede your memory. Often people have a problem with attention because of stress or tension. Stress causes your mind to wander and not focus on what you need to remember. This is not uncommon when a student is preparing for a final exam and is overwhelmed by the task.
The same could be said about memorizing large numbers. Not many people have the inclination to commit to memory the first 40,000 decimal places of pi, the current world record. The very notion of absorbing so many digits is utterly incomprehensible. And yet, I believe we all have the potential to perform feats of this sort. This chapter is for those who want to learn how to crunch large numbers. It's also for those who cannot conceive how or why it's done and want to find out. I hope it removes some of the mystique, giving you an insight into what is, in fact, a very ordered and deceptively simple process. By the end of it, you will know how to memorize the first 100 digits of pi, and how to set about tackling bigger numbers.
When you are memorizing a large vocabulary, you need somewhere to store everything, a place where words can be accessed quickly and easily. There's nothing worse than having a head crammed full of information. It's not that there is too much (your brain can store far more information than most of us will ever need), it just isn't ordered properly or organized well.
It is much easier to remember things that are of interest. Interest helps you store and process information in such a way that you will remember it for a long time. This principle is extremely important. For instance, take a moment to think about something that you are genuinely interested in (i.e. sports, music, cars, gardening, another person, etc.). As you think about your interest, it will be easy to have a rush of information flooding your memory. You should be able to talk at length about your interest and remember items about it in great detail
I am constantly devising new routes for myself (I had to use 35, each similar to the above, when I memorized 35 packs of cards) and I am surprised at how easy it is to remember every stage. But, then, the surroundings I choose are always familiar. Guildford, for example, is my home town. Once you are happy with the route, you arc in a position to memorize your first pack of cards.
After a couple of days, I could memorize my first pack of cards in 26 minutes, with eleven errors. It was an important landmark, despite being way off the record. From then on, nothing else mattered the next three months were an object lesson in accelerated learning. An evolution was taking place. All day, every day, late into the night, I dealt myself card after card, pack after pack. I noted down times to the nearest second, analysed errors, substituted symbols and altered journeys. After three months of intensive study, I felt I had a new brain my memory was in a respectable state, much like the body feels after regular exercise. Not only could I memorize one pack in less than three minutes, six packs shuffled together had become a doddle. In this chapter I will show you how easy it is to memorize a pack of cards. If you were diligent about learning the numbers in chapter 4, and are now carrying around a 100 people representing 00 to 99, you have already done over three quarters of...
There are four basic pieces of information to memorize when you are learning the FA Cup the year, the winner, the runner up, and the score. The year is taken care of by the stage (1903 is at the third stage) the other three pieces of information can be translated into a single complex image, the sort you formed when learning how to memorize numbers in Chapter 4. The process is very simple
What I found most incredible was his evident ability to memorize the cards in sequence. He had the cards dealt out, one on top of the other, and looked at each card just once. I knew from this that he did not possess a photographic, or eidetic, memory. Baffled but intrigued, I retired to a quiet room, armed with a pack of cards, and pondered the seemingly imponderable. 1 was certain Carvcllo's secret lay in the sequence of cards. I had also heard something about using a story as an aide-memoire.
When I begin to memorize the first 50,000 decimal places to pi, I intend to have 50 separate journeys, each with 50 stages. Every stage will incorporate 5 people and 5 actions, linked by a story. In other words I will be allocating 20 digits to each stage. 50 x 50 x 20 50,000. Unlikely as it may sound, I intend to memorize the number quickly and painlessly, absorbing 4-5,000 digits daily over a two-week period. I will then recall the number in front of invigilators, hopefully breaking the world record, and finally erase it 50,000 digits of pi is not the sort of information I want to carry around in my head long term. I expect Mr Tomoyori or someone else similarly minded will gradually edge up the record. I predict that the first 100,000 decimal places to pi will have been memorized by the end of this century. Perhaps you are the very person to do it The only problem I can foresee is finding invigilators who are suffi-ciendy patient and willing to sit through such an event
One common symptom of people who don't know how to use their memories is the failure to recall dreams. It is nonsense to say that we don't dream. We all do, every night. It is the brain's way of filing away the thoughts it has had during the day. By exercising your memory regularly, you will begin to recall more and more dreams. (You might even have more wild and untamed dreams No promises, though.) Finally, you may wish to use the findings of your archaeological dig for one of your journeys. When I memorized thirty-five packs of cards, I needed thirty-five routes, many of them taken from my childhood.
Luria presented him with 70-digit matrices, complex scientific formulae, even poems in foreign languages, all of which he could memorize in a matter of minutes. He was even able to recall the information perfecdy fifteen years later. In S's case, he automatically translated the world around him into vivid mental images that lasted for years. He couldn't help but have a good memory. If he was asked to memorize a word, he would not only hear it, but he would also see a colour. On some occasions, he would also experience a taste in his mouth and a feeling on his skin. Later on, when he was asked to repeat the word, he had a number of triggers to remind him. He also used images to remember numbers Finally, a brief word about his use of random location. When he first became a mnemonist, and had to memorize a list of words, he would 'visit' a place that was associated with each word. He appeared to have no control over his mental movements, toing and froing everywhere.
I have developed a system for memorizing binary that is an offshoot of the DOMINIC SYSTEM, in that it translates boring digits (and let's face it, in binary The task of memorizing 300 flips of a coin is thus made very simple. All I had to do was remember 25 complex images in a leisurely ten minutes - far less of a struggle than trying to recall 300 individual bits of meaningless information. The efficiency of the system becomes even more apparent when you want to memorize a 12-digit binary number. Using the dominic system, an ordinary 4-digit, base-10 number translates into one complex image. To remember 2414, for example, you imagine weatherman Bernard Davey drinking a pint of Guinness (24 BD Bernard Davey 14 AG Alec Guinness, whose action is drinking a pint of Guinness).
Written by a teacher, Ad Herrenium is addressed to students of rhetoric and concerns itself with the basic rules of memory. In it we learn that the Greeks believed in two types of memory natural and artificial. Those who are born with good natural memories could improve them still further by training the artificial memory. More significantly, training and exercise could dramatically help anyone who is born with a very poor memory. In other words, however bad it was, your memory could be improved if treated like a muscle and exercised constantly.
By choosing the most significant points about an issue, there is no need to remember everything in detail. Select what you want to remember and it will be possible to recall it a month, a year, or even five years from now. Next time you're in a situation at work where you are overwhelmed by information, pay attention to this principle of selection
FIGURE 2 Hierarchical organization of memory. Short- and long-term memory is subject to being learned by either conscious or unconscious processes. Similarly, memory can be recalled either consciously or unconsciously. Many forms of simple learning such as motor learning, simple associative conditioning, and non-associative learning can be learned and recalled unconsciously. More complex forms of learning typically involve conscious processes. Short-term working memory is listed as a separate category because it is essentially entirely conscious and not stored for more than a few seconds. FIGURE 2 Hierarchical organization of memory. Short- and long-term memory is subject to being learned by either conscious or unconscious processes. Similarly, memory can be recalled either consciously or unconsciously. Many forms of simple learning such as motor learning, simple associative conditioning, and non-associative learning can be learned and recalled unconsciously. More complex forms of...
Implicit versus Explicit Memory Skills and habits come under implicit memory. Classical conditioning and other types of memory, which also fall into this implicit category, are related to simple reflex reactions, for example, jumping away when touching a hot object, that we execute automatically in our everyday lives. But when you think of memory, you probably think of something else altogether discrete events, like recalling someone's birthday or where you went on vacation a few years ago. This type of memory is called episodic or event-related or explicit memory. You have to make a conscious effort to retrieve the explicit memory of a fact or event, unlike the implicit memory of knowing how to drive a car. In this book, I generally use the word memory as it is commonly understood explicit memory of both short-term and long-term specific events. For explicit memory, there are three elements to the sequence of remembering Short-Term versus Long-Term Memory Explicit memory can be...
If you, or someone close to you, are not sure if alcohol or another substance is causing subtle memory loss, there is a simple way to find out stop taking the drug for two to three months and see if your memory improves. If it does, you have your answer, and staying off alcohol or the drug that you are using is the solution for your memory loss. But if you are unable to stop for even a few weeks, this proves that you are addicted and need to take specific steps, such as joining Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous or another addiction program, to help you get over your addiction.
Identifying a reversible cause of memory loss should be your top priority carefully go through the list in this chapter and read the earlier relevant chapters to see if you have a condition worsening your memory. If you think there might be such a cause, or you're not sure, consult your doctor.
Fill in, as demonstrated in the examples offig 15pages 45 and46, the line which represents the way your memory recalls during a learning period. If review is organised properly, the graph shown in fig 19 can be changed to keep recall at the high point reached shortly after learning has been completed. In order to accomplish this, a programmed pattern of review must take place, each review being done at the time just before recall is about to drop. For example, the first review should take place about 10 minutes after a one-hour learning period and should itself take 10 minutes. This will keep the recall high for approximately one day, when the next review should take place, this time for a period of 2 to 4 minutes. After this, recall will probably be retained for approximately a week, when another 2 minute review can be completed followed by a further review after about one month. After this time the knowledge will be lodged in Long Term Memory. This means it will be familiar in the...
An additional transcription factor worth noting in the context of secondary waves of transcription factor regulation is C EBP. C EBP is the CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein, a known secondary target of CREB regulation in Aplysia sensory neurons. Cristina Alberini's lab has shown that the consolidation of mammalian long-term memory is associated with a relatively late (several hours post-training) elevation of C EBP (45). While it is not known if this
Argyriou, A., Prast, H., Philippu, A. Melatonin facilitates short-term memory. European Journal of Pharmacology 349 159-162, 1998. Higbee, K. L. Your Memory How It Works and How to Improve It, Second edition. Paragon House, New York, 1988. Kandel, E. R. Genes, synapses, and long-term memory. Journal ofCell Physiology 173 124-125, 1997. Mohs, R. C., Ashman, T. A., Jantzen, K., Albert, M., Brandt, J., Gordon, B., Rasmusson, X., Grossman, M., Jacobs, D., Stern, Y. A study of the efficacy of a comprehensive memory enhancement program in healthy elderly persons. Psychiatry Research 77 183-195, 1998. Scogin, F., Bienias, J. A three-year follow-up of older adult participants in a memory skills training program. Psychology and Aging 3 334-337, 1988. Van Gorp, W. G., Wilkins, J. N., Moore, L. H., Hull, J., Horner, M. D., Plotkin, D. Declarative and procedural memory functioning in abstinent cocaine abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry 56 85-89, 1999.
Until just before the publication of The Mind Map Book, Mind Maps had always been created using coloured pens and paper. But now technology makes it possible to Mind Map using computers, because they now have enough memory capacity, speed and software capability to allow Mind Maps to be drawn on screen.
Having completed your Mind Map notes, you should review them regularly in order to maintain your understanding and recall of what you have learnt. The natural rhythms of your memory are discussed in detail in Tony Buzan's Use Your Memory, Chapter 11, and Use Your Head, Chapter 5. The essential points are summarised here. The information will then be stored in the long-term memory.
If you managed to do this successfully, you have already accomplished a memory feat that most people would find difficult if not impossible. You have now forged into your memory and creative imagination a system that you will be able to use throughout your life and that combines the qualities of both the left and the right hemispheres of your brain.
Colour is one of the most powerful tools for enhancing memory and creativity. Choosing specific colours for coding purposes or for specific areas of your Mind Map will give you faster access to the information, will improve your memory of the information, and will increase the number and range of your creative ideas. Such colour codes and symbols can be developed both by individuals and by groups. Obscurity veils perception. If you scribble your notes they will hinder rather than help your memory. According to psychologists, our short-term memory is on average only capable of storing seven items of information. Chunking can help us use this storage space more effectively. For example, an untrained brain-user may use all their short-term memory capacity to store a seven-digit phone number. The skilled brain-user, on the other hand, will chunk the seven digits in some meaningful way, thus leaving space for other information. fin 1982 Chase and Erickson carried out an experiment on this...
The Greeks so worshipped memory that they made a goddess out of her - Mnemosyne. It was her name from which was derived the current word mnemonics, used to describe memory techniques such as those you are about to learn. In Greek and Roman times, senators would learn these techniques in order to impress other politicians and the public with their phenomenal powers of learning and memory. Using these simple but sophisticated methods, the Romans were able to remember, without fault, thousands of items, including statistics relating to their empire, and became the rulers of their time. 1 Colour. The more colours you use, and the more vivid they are, the better. Using colour alone can improve your memory by as much as 50 per cent. 2 Imagination. Your imagination is the powerhouse of your memory. The more vividly you can imagine, the more easily you will remember. Sub-areas within imagination include the following 3 Rhythm. The more rhythm and variation of rhythm in your mental picture,...
Memory problems are common among people with diabetes, as well as among people with mildly impaired glucose metabolism, whose blood sugar is slightly high. In 2003, researchers at New York University School of Medicine reported that people with suboptimal glucose metabolism achieved lower scores on short-term memory tests than people with normal blood sugar. What's more, the hippocampus was smaller in people with elevated blood sugar. Suboptimal glucose metabolism (also known as reduced glucose tolerance) is one of the five characteristics of Syndrome X, a collection of risk factors for heart disease that tend to aggregate in some people. The other factors are hypertension, elevated triglyceride, low HDL (good cholesterol), and abdominal obesity.
On the first few attempts, you will undoubtedly make some errors, but even so you will be performing far beyond the average. Consider any errors and mistakes you make to be good opportunities for examining- and subsequently strengthening- any areas of weakness in your memory systems and the way you apply them. If USE YOUR MEMORY 1
By repeating memorized material in a time distorted fashion, valuable associative patterns can be firmly established and conscious recall becomes more available. Using time distortion, problems can be reviewed and approached from all angles in a matter of seconds. Hypothetical lectures, appointments and scenes can be laid out in your mind, prepared for and visualized in a brief amount of time. Kinesthetic body movements in gymnastics or the martial arts can be reviewed in this way as well. Doing 'instantaneous' calculations and high speed mathematics can be learned with time distortion. In a similar way solutions to everyday problems can be achieved effortlessly and quickly. By simple trusting your subconscious mind, you establish a better awareness and faith in your own abilities. You can memorize and say the following suggestions to yourself or you can put them on a cassette tape for playback when you're relaxed.
As an exercise in amplifying your thought waves using a simple psychotronic device, refer to the concentric squares made as a chart in Exercise -- Aura Seeing. Look at a picture of a friend to refresh your memory of her appearance. Then visualize the image of your friend in the center of the chart as you communicate a message to her. Use the tips in Exercise -- Audio Telepathy and Exercise -- Visual Telepathy as guides in this exercise. If you place a snip of hair of your friend (which carries her energy vibration) in the center of the chart in front of you flat on the table (don't place tape or any other material vibrations with it), the telepathic effect will be enhanced as you gaze into the center and send your message.
Chittaranjan Andrade, has studied an Ayurvedic preparation that now goes by its modern name, BR-16A. In controlled animal experiments, he showed that BR-16A improved learning and reversed short-term memory deficits in mice. But when he approached the four manufacturers of BR-16A in India, none of them were willing to fund further basic research to find out which of the twenty or more ingredients in the substance was responsible for improving memory. They also refused to fund controlled clinical studies in patients, because if one of the companies invested a large amount of money in research on BR-16A, any positive results obtained would translate into free profits for the other three manufacturers that had not invested in the research effort. As Chittaranjan discovered to his chagrin, it is virtually impossible to get financial support to conduct large-scale, systematic studies of Ayurvedic and other traditional medications. His basic science research...
Recently, a physician friend of mine told me that he now takes ginkgo regularly because he has a strong family history of Alzheimer's disease. And he definitely isn't the only card-carrying member of the American Medical Association who takes this substance. So even though the jury is still out, the evidence in favor of ginkgo is piling up to such an extent that former skeptics have begun to turn the corner. If you are worried about losing your memory, or have begun to experience subtle memory loss, or, as in the case of my friend, have a strong family history of dementia, ginkgo biloba is an option.
The brain needs the same nutrients and vitamins as the rest of the body it just needs a lot more of them. There is evidence supporting the use of antioxidants like vitamin E, and to a lesser extent vitamins A and C. One or more of these essential vitamins is a must in any program to prevent memory loss. One note of caution these antioxidants are true long-term prevention agents and not quick-fix therapies. You will not see any immediate effects on your memory, and may not observe any change for several months. However, over a period of several years, there is a good chance that your memory will have declined less than that of your aging peers who have not chosen the antioxidant path. In any case, given that these are naturally occurring vitamins and related substances with hardly any side effects, and most are easy to obtain and not very expensive, what is the harm in taking them on a regular basis
And translation of genes downstream of the CyclicAMP Response Element (CRE) DNA regulatory element (see reference 3 and Figure 14). A variety of prior block -type studies in a variety of model systems suggested that the CRE transcriptional pathway was involved in long-term memory. However, no mammalian behavioral model system had yet demonstrated that environmental signals associated with learning led to alterations in CRE-mediated gene expression. Impey and Storm undertook a measure study to assess this issue directly. They found that training for
A mini-trampoline increases recall later due to the G-force contribution upon the brain cells. Also by teaching science, art, math or other subject matter, you can create meaningfulness to the language learning. Singing with intonation, writing foreign words on the blackboard in mirror language or upside down or using the 4-second rhythmic method with 60 beats per minute Baroque music in the background (see Exercise -- Rhythmic Memorizing ) --- can all assist in the immersion learning process.
Another problem with many of the tests administered is the lack of connection of the tests to real life. Many tests are abstract in nature. Seeing how many numbers you can memorize, how quickly you can turn a lever, and so on are not relevant to a senior's life. Some experts believe that the
Thus, we see that at least two (zif268 and krox 20) and probably several more transcription factor-encoding genes are up-regulated in L-LTP. Overall, these findings that transcription factors are targets of the gene expression system of L-LTP and long-term memory suggest that plasticity-associated gene regulation will be quite complex. The findings indicate the likelihood that the initial triggering of altered gene expression with L-LTP-inducing stimulation sets off secondary waves of altered gene expression. The potential for exponential expansion of altered gene expression in L-LTP, along with combinatorics for secondary signals impinging on these mechanisms, appears somewhat daunting. However, parsing out these complex pathways will be necessary to answer a fundamental question in biology how neuronal cell surface activity impinges upon the genome.
Consolidation of Long-Term Memory III. Summary A final theme of this chapter is that the analogy between L-LTP and long-term memory is important and valid independent of whether LTP itself is used in the behaving animal for memory storage per se. Intrinsic to many of the issues we will discuss in this chapter is the question of whether LTP has accurately modeled memory, that is, has investigating the
If these key words don't suit you, make up your own. Now as an exercise, memorize the Presidents of the United States by associating the peg word in a ridiculous way with the corresponding President. Work with the peg words every day until it becomes natural to associate them with grocery lists and other daily information.
Doing this, have the video go into a one minute musical mode with soothing largo movements of baroque composers (see Exercise -- Rhythmic Memorizing ). Then have the same person on the video give the English translation of what he said in the foreign tongue. Move onto the next one minute monologue in a foreign tongue with a different language and narrator. Go into the musical mode and write down what you think was said. Then have the English translation given on video by the same person. Continue with these one minute foreign language blurbs, one minute write downs and follow-up interpretations over and over for one half hour per day -always varying the foreign language or dialect and differing the content of the monologue.
In memorizing the points of a speech it is far better to use the ancient system of places or houses, than to form the sub-headings into a list or series connected by the Roads In the course of a debate one may desire to remember the points of an opponent's speech, with a view to referring to them, perhaps in order, when one's own turn to speak arrives. One method is to write these on a piece of paper and then turn to the notes one by one but this generally has rather an enfeebling effect. Merely to memorize them is not very satisfactory either, for it nearly always involves a certain amount of mental preparation of the second point while one is still speaking about the first.
If you remember what an author says, you have learned something from reading. If what he says is true, you have even learned something about the world. But whether it is a fact about the book or a fact about the world that you have learned, you have gained nothing but information if you have only exercised your memory.
Design affirmations and visualizations for such changes and repeat them in succession to yourself 3 times. For instance, if you want to improve your memory, say to yourself 3 times, My memory is improving every day in every way, and visualize how you would feel with a perfect memory. Pretend you are an actor and you're assuming a new role. The more you can crystallize your visualization, the quicker you can obtain your objective. So practice putting yourself into a self-hypnotic state. Then stress the virtues you wish to acquire, but remember that you have to truly want to change, otherwise the mental conflict of saying something and not doing it will continue. To bring yourself back out of self-hypnosis, suggest to yourself to progressively wake up as you count backwards from 10 to 1, and affirm to yourself 3 times, I am fully awake, feeling fine and better than before.
L-LTP is defined in terms of an enduring, protein synthesis-dependent form of synap-tic potentiation in area CA1, as I will describe in more detail later. However, the phrase L-LTP is in some ways, and perhaps in its most meaningful way, an allegory of long-term memory in the behaving animal. The particular mechanisms that are being worked out to explain L-LTP This area of LTP research is frequently discussed as an analogue of long-term memory as opposed to being limited to a description of a specific neuronal plasticity phenomenon. Many investigators study E-LTP in an effort to explain that specific phenomenon in physiologic and molecular terms, while frequently investigators studying L-LTP think of L-LTP as more of an umbrella term that encompasses gene regulation-dependent long-term plastic
Mary O'Brien illustrates that steady, moderate- to high-volume alcohol consumption can affect your memory. But why some people are more vulnerable than others remains a bit of a mystery. Genetic factors can play an important role people from a few Native American tribes are so genetically sensitive to alcohol that they can lose control and become violent after only one or two drinks. Clearly, psychological and social influences are also important.
It you were traumatized by a past event and want to erase it from your memory, relive the event in your mind and visualize it unfolding as you would have wanted it to unfold. Repeat the visualization as many times as is necessary in order to replace the negative memory with a positive one.
Some chess players can play a single game of mental chess moderately well, but Alekhine in 1933 played 32 games simultaneously Then in 1937, Koltanowski broke that record and played 34 games simultaneously Now the record is held by J. Flesch with 52 games in 1960. Not all blindfold players agree on how they play mental chess and there is some difference of opinion regarding their methods. As George Koltanowski points out in his book, In The Dark, every blindfold player develops his own technique of retaining positions in his mind. One player memorizes all of the moves made in each game another has a photographic mind a third insists that he himself doesn't know Many strong players are unable to play blindfold games, because they cannot visualize in their mind the location of the different colored squares. When they use an empty chessboard in front of them though, they can play almost as well as when the pieces are on the board. One trick to master the color of the squares better is to...
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