## Info

This is the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack built.

This is the Dog that worried the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack

This is the Cow with the Crumpled Horn that tossed the Dog that worried the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack built.

This is the Maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the Dog that worried the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack built.

This is the Man all tattered and torn that kissed the Maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the Dog that worried the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack built.

This is the Priest all shaven and shorn that married the Man all tattered and torn that kissed the Maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the Dog that worried the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack built.

This is the Cock that crowed in the morn that waked the Priest all shaven and shorn that married the Man all tattered and torn that kissed the Maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the Dog that worried the Cat that killed the Rat that ate the Malt that lay in the House that Jack built.

### BOXER REBELLION

Making common objects can help you develop spatial-relationship skills. Suppose that you want to make a box. The following patterns are ways you can arrange five sides of a box on a piece of cardboard. Some of them can be folded up to make a box without a lid. Some cannot. Try to determine which can and which cannot. You'll find answers at the end of this chapter.

Use Figure 7-10. If your dominant style is visual or audi-^ tory, copy these patterns to grid paper and then cut them ^ out. Try to fold them up to make a box. This exercise will help develop your kinesthetic skills.

fIf kinesthetic is your dominant style, try to visualize which patterns can be folded to make the box without touching the patterns. You may make sketches on a notepad, if you like, but no touching!

 8
 10

Figure 7-10 Boxer Rebellion 1

A box may not be very helpful without a lid, so Figure 7-11 contains patterns of six squares that may or may not be helpful in making a box with its lid. Determine which can and which cannot be folded into a box with a lid. Answers are at the end of this chapter.

Figure 7-11 Boxer Rebellion 2
Figure 7-11 (continued) Boxer Rebellion 2

### TOOL SCHOOLS

This is a set of puns to help you improve your auditory learning style. Listen to the sounds of the names of the famous colleges and universities as you match them up with an "appropriate" major for a degree fancifully offered by the institution. For example, Albright College suggests the homonym "all bright." Look for a degree having to do with brightness. You would choose Lighting Engineer.

Tool Schools

1. Albright College

2. Barry University

3. Bates College

4. Bloomfield College

5. Butler University

6. Campbell University

7. Colby College

8. Colgate University

9. Dartmouth College

10. DePauw University

11. Drew University

12. Drexel University

13. Duke University

14. Lincoln College

15. Lycoming College

16. Morehouse College

17. Oxford University

18. Princeton University

19. Stetson University

20. Tulane University

21. University of Charleston

22. Webber State College

23. Yale University

_ Agriculture

_ Automotive Engineering

_ Boxing

_ Construction

_ Cotton Shirt Manufacturing

_ Dance

_ DeVeterinarian

_ Domestications

_ Fishing

_ Furniture Design

_ Grilling

_ Haberdashery

_ Highway Design

_ Horticulture

_ Hotel Management

_ Lighting Engineer

_ Prevarication

_ Regal Studies

_ Soupmaking

_ Dentistry

Undertaker

This exercise was invented by Keith Harmeyer and his former student, Lee Steer, as they conversed while Lee was in college. At the end of each letter, Keith would add a new So I Says, and in return, Lee would add one to her letters. You can use this game to build your auditory learning skills.

In each of the following lines, you can respond by selecting a name that sounds like a word that is described by the first part of the sentence. For example: If I were to say to you, "So I says to the guy changing his tire, I says, Jack!" You would realize that a jack is used to change a tire and it is the name of a person. The coincidence of sounds introduces humor, we hope. Your job is to notice how many words sound like common names. The answers are at the end of this chapter.

Enjoy Your Ageless Mental Agility • 259 So I says to the girl blessing the food, I says ...

So I says to the man headed to physical education, I says... _

So I says to the kid playing with his trains, I says ...

So I says to the girl watching the sunrise, I says ...

So I says to the girl taking me to court, I says ...

So I says to the guy using the PA system, I says ...

So I says to the woman making hamburgers, I says ...

So I says to the fellow saying his prayers, I says ...

So I says to the boy doing subtraction problems, I says ... _

So I says to the fellow floating gently on the waves, I says... _

So I says to the guy getting dressed, I says ...

So I says to the lady drinking Harvey's Bristol Cream, I says... _

So I says to the fellow who thinks carnival games are fair, I says ...

So I says to the man seasoning the sauce, I says ...

So I says to the guy who just hit the lottery, I says ...

260 • Chapter 7 17. So I says to the man learning to tame lions, I says .

18. So I says to the two guys with the drums, I says ...

19. So I says to the two girls working in the fabric store, I says ... _

20. So I says to the guy looking a little pale, I says ...

Now that you have completed this exercise, you may ^^ have created a few "So I says" of your own. Let us know by sending e-mail to [email protected]. You can also visit the web site www.mentalagility.com and add one more to the list on the site.

### NINE-DOT PROBLEM

There is a classic problem that works on your visual learning style as well as your creativity and spatial-relationship skills. It is called the Nine Dot problem because it is concerned with the following array of dots:

The task is to connect the dots with four straight lines without taking the pencil off the page. No line should double back over another line. Each dot must be on at least one line. After you try this, check the answer at the end of this chapter.

### GLUTTON

This game improves your ability to concentrate. You will need a pair of dice and an opponent. The object of the game is to roll the dice as many times as you like on your turn, adding up the pips on the dice with the goal of eventually reaching 100. However, if you roll a 1 on either die, your score stays the same. If you roll snake eyes (a 2), your turn is over and your score reverts to 0. Otherwise, add the total of the pips to your score. End your turn when you decide to or if you roll snake eyes. Then the other person begins to roll the dice. The first person to reach 100 wins.

Try to predict when you might roll snake eyes. Determine how likely it is to roll them. Develop a strategy for winning this game. If you are lucky, you can get to 100 on one turn without rolling snake eyes. How much luck do you think there is in this game? Can you compensate with a clever strategy? How lucky do you feel today?

At the beginning, you may want to use a paper and pencil to keep the totals. As you increase your concentration powers, you will want to keep the totals in your head, for both players.

### FIGURE AND GROUND

Whenever a figure is drawn in a frame, the space becomes divided into two sections: the figure (or foreground) and the ground (or background). For some highly visual people with great spatial-relationship skills, the figure and ground readily change places. Consider the drawing in Figure 7-12.

Let's say this figure shows steps in your home. Are you looking at them from above or from below? It depends on what part of the picture your mind assigns to the background and what part it assigns to the foreground. When the foreground is in the lower left corner, it appears that the steps are below you. However, if you can make your brain decide that the foreground is in the upper right, it appears that the steps are above you, as if you were standing on a basement step looking up.

This same phenomenon applies to these stylized silhouettes of people in Figure 7-13. Here, no frame contains the space, and the black comes to the foreground. Stare at the pictures in Figure 7-13 for a while.

Figure 7-13 Example of Figure and Ground

It may take some time to push the black blobs into the background to see the figure in the foreground. What appears is a familiar word in white letters on a black background.

### NIM GOLF

To improve your kinesthetic learning style, use golf tees to play this game. Some people used matchsticks when they were a staple of every kitchen. NIM is an ancient game of skill. To begin, place four tees in a pile, then place two in another pile, and place one in a pile of its own.

### Figure 7-14 Ancient game of NIM using golf tees

Play with another person. The object of this game is to take the last tee. On each turn, you may take one, two, or three tees from any one pile. Try to make the other player take the last tee. Develop a strategy to increase the number of wins.

MATH MAGIC

Here's a quick exercise to accomplish. Improve your problemsolving skills by trying to determine how this trick works.

Write down a three-digit number._

Multiply it by 11._

Multiply it by 13._

Multiply it by 7._

Describe the answer. How does that work? OK, here's another trick: Write down number that represents the month of your birthday. (2, for February, 3 for March, etc.)_

Multiply it by 5._

Multiply by 4._

Multiply by 5._

Subtract 175._

What do you see? The first one or two digits of your answer should be your birth month, and the last two should be your birth day. How does this work? At first, use a calculator to do this trick. Improve your concentration skills by practicing it mentally.

You can try this with your friends. This is a clever way to find out a birthday that you think you should know without asking the other person what it is!

### MENTAL AGILITY POSTTEST

Now that you have practiced and learned new problemsolving skills, you are ready to take the postassessment. Again, set a timer for 10 minutes. Look for the next item in each pattern.

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MORE GAMES

Keep using your brain in new and novel ways. Here are a few games you can learn to play with others.

### PLAY WORDSMITH

You can play a great parlor game with a group of people, a dictionary, pencils, and a pad of paper. Here's how to play. One person is the lexicographer. The lexicographer, or Lex, selects a word out of the dictionary sure to stump the other players. Lex writes down the correct definition on a piece of a b a paper. Each of the other players creates a fictional definition for the obscure word on a separate piece of paper. Then Lex collects the papers and shuffles the papers. Lex reads each definition. Each player selects the definition he or she thinks is correct. Scoring is based on how well you fool other players and how difficult the word is that Lex selects. Lex gets one point for every player who did not choose the correct definition. All players get one point for every player who chose their definition, and one point if they guess the correct definition. That constitutes one round. Play enough rounds so that each player has a chance to be Lex. There are hilarious moments. Hearing people's definitions for words about which they have no clue can be a hoot. This game is sure to help your auditory skills by practicing your concentration on the reading of the definitions.

Some wonderful words spawn some clever, albeit incorrect, definitions. Here are a few real definitions:

bon'te bok, n. a species of purplish-red antelope of South Africa flot, n. scum, floating grease, as in fatty broth moff, n. a light silk fabric woven in the Caucasus my'ta cism, n. abnormally frequent or incorrect use of the letter m

It would be very difficult to believe that these were the correct definitions for these otherwise normal-sounding words! You will find yourself browsing the dictionary looking for the best word to use the next time you play Wordsmith.

### MAGIC MENTAL MINUTES

Building mental agility does not have to be an all-consuming event. You can do many things that take just a minute and will work cumulatively to increase your mental abilities:

• Look up a word in a dictionary. While you are reading or watching TV, a word will come up for which you may not know the meaning. Take one minute to look it up in the dictionary.

• Mentally review the names of the people you met at the last social event you attended. Match their names and faces with a fact you found out about them.

• Add the digits on the license plate in front of you at a traffic light. Then multiply the digits. Decide which is greater, the sum or the product.

• Add the digits of the license plate. Then add the digits of that sum. Continue adding until your sum is a single digit. Then divide the license plate number by 9. The remainder, if any, will be the same as that single digit.

• Determine the best poker hand from the numbers on the license plate of a van.

• If there are letters on the license plate, see how many words you can form that have the letters in the same order, in reverse order, in any order. For example, if a license tag has the letters AFD on it, you can find the name Alfredo.

• If there are letters on the license plate, create an acrostic for the letters. An acrostic is a sentence in which each word begins with a letter in the list. For example, if a license tag has the letters AFD on it, make up a sentence such as Arnold feeds dogs.

Caution: Do not perform any of these license-tag activities while your car is moving, unless you are a passenger!

• Look at a scene, say, in a picture or out of doors. Close your eyes and try to recall as many of the objects in the scene as you can for one minute. Try this specifically with a room in your home.

• Look at that same scene and find connections among the items in the scene. How many objects are trees? How many are manmade, and so on.

• Pick up a crossword puzzle from the newspaper and try to fill in just one word.

• At the checkout counter, if you are purchasing just one item, try to predict the amount of the sales tax. To do this, you will have to be in a state where sales tax is assessed, and you will have to know the tax rate. Alternatively, after you give the cashier your money, predict the amount of change you should receive.

• Deal a deck of cards into eight piles. Predict the number of face cards in each stack. Look at one stack to see whether your prediction was correct. Predict how many face cards are in each of the remaining stacks. Continue guessing and looking at the remaining stacks one by one, and refine your prediction each time for the stacks that remain.

• Figure out another route to take from your home to the market. Next time you go to the market, take that route. Alternatively, map out a new route for your next walk. Write down the directions, if you like. (Did you know that this is actually a suggestion made by police officers for your safety?)

• See how may words you can create using the letters in your name in one minute.

• While watching TV, look at a one-minute commercial and determine what the downside or upside is to purchasing the product being advertised.

• While watching TV, decide whether the last action of the hero or heroine is "in character." Predict the outcome of the conversation or action presented.

• Tune in to a quiz show and try to answer a few questions.

• Keep a jigsaw puzzle set up if you have the space. Spend one minute looking for one piece of the puzzle.

• Pull out seven Scrabble™ tiles and try to make the longest word you can in one minute.

• Scan a newspaper for a certain word, say, the. Count how many times you can find the word the on the front page in one minute. Don't overlook words such as weather!

• Make one entry in a journal. Reminisce about a childhood event. Build a written history of your life one minute at a time.

• Respell a three-letter word in alphabetical order. For example, the word get spelled alphabetically is egt; tar re-spelled is art. Notice that some respellings form actual words. After you achieve success with three-letter words, move up to four-letter words.

• Make a mental picture of five of your friends. Rethink the picture so that the youngest is on the left and the oldest is on the right. Then order all of your friends by age. Try this again arranging them from shortest to tallest.

• Draw a rough view of your home. Try to locate the plants, bushes, or trees around the building without looking.

• Name all the credit cards or photos in your wallet or purse. Check later for accuracy.

• If you read the comics section of your newspaper, name five comic strips. Give yourself extra credit for naming the cartoonists.

Caution! This list is not intended for performing in one sitting. You should use it as a resource when you are looking for a one-minute mental task. After practicing with this list, you will be able to invent your own Magic Mental Minutes. Visit the companion Web page for this book, www.mentalagility.com, and let us know what you have invented.

AMAZING MAZES

This set of mazes develops visual and kinesthetic abilities, as well as problem-solving skills. Start with the smaller (¡^ mazes and work up to the more complex. What you learn in earlier mazes, you can apply to the more complex.

FINISH

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Maze 1

Maze 2

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Maze 9

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Maze 10

CONCLUSION

The only person you can change is yourself. Get out there and grow some brain cells—start today!

Mental Agility Pretest

1. J 2. c 3. d 4.15 5. a 6. c 7. b 8. c 9. 36 10. b 11. a 12. a 13. d 14. 81 15. a 16. b 17. b 18. a 19. 5 20. d

Exercises Division Quotient

1/7 = 0.142857142857 . . . 2/7 = 0.285714285714 . . . 3/7 = 0.428571428571 4/7 = 0.571428571428 5/7 = 0.714285714285 . . . 6/7 = 0.857142857142 . . .

Sequence of Letters

The sequence A, E, F, H, . . . is the sequence of uppercase letters that can be drawn with only straight lines. So, the next such letter is I.

Inductive Reasoning Exercises

1. 17; Add 4 to each term to find the next term.

2. P; Every third letter of the alphabet.

3. 5; Subtract 1, subtract 2, subtract 3, subtract 4.

4. 16; Even numbers alternate with odd numbers.

5. 5; Divide each term by 5 to find the next term.

6. J; First letter of the months of the year.

7. 125; 1 x 1 x 1=1, 2 x 2 x 2 = 8, 3 x 3 x 3 = 27, 4 x 4 x 4 = 64, 5 x 5 x 5 = 125. Or 13, 23, 33, 43, 53.

8. 100001; Insert another 0 for each term.

9. O; The letters of the alphabet we use round strokes to draw.

10. Y; A tough one. The letters of the top row of a standard keyboard.

Match Dice

1. over 2. hamlet 3. Elvis, lives, Levis 4. Nile, line 5. near, earn 6. amen, mean 7. listen, silent 8. serpent, present 9. Señor, snore 10. sent, nest 11. rose, sore 12. escort, sector 13. warned, wander 14. night, thing 15. note, tone

Word Puzzles

Crossword Puzzle

 P I G A C E T E M
 T R U W A R O W N

Enjoy Your Ageless Mental Agility • 283 Word Fit! A Fill-In Puzzle

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Mind Matches

1. h 2. m 3. o 4. k 5. f 6. c 7. l 8. g 9. d 10. j 11. p 12. n 13. a 14. i 15. b 16. e

How Many Calendars Do You Ever Need?

4. There are only 14 different calendars. After a year starts, there are only two options for the rest of the days. Either the year is a leap year and there is an extra day in February, or it is not a leap year. So, we need seven different calendars for a leap year and seven more for a non-leap year. To investigate further, use the words "perpetual calendar" to aid in your search.

The year 1999 started on a Friday. It is the same calendar we used in 1993. The next non-leap year that starts on a Friday is 2010. Save your old 1999 calendar and use it again in 2010. The year 2000 calendar gets a rerun in 2028.

Boxer Rebellion

These figures make boxes without lids: 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12. These figures make boxes with lids: 1, 4, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 27, 31, 33.

Tool Schools

7,11,14,13,16,17, 21, 10, 5, 9, 12, 22, 19, 20, 4, 3, 1, 23, 15, 18, 6, 8, 2

1. Grace 2. Jim (Gym) 3. Lionel 4. Dawn 5. Sue 6. Mike (microphone) 7. Patty 8. Neil (kneel) 9. Les (less) 10. Bob 11. Don 12. Sherry 13. Mark 14. Herb 15. Denise 16. Rich 17. Claude 18. Tom, Tom 19. Polly, Esther (polyester) 20. Juan (wan)

### Nine-Dot Problem

The key to this problem is to visualize the space outside the nine dots and use it. This problem is the origin of the now popular phrase thinking outside the box.

Mental Agility Posttest

II. c 12. d 13. c 14.13 15. c 16. a 17. d 18. a 19. 4 20. c

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Maze 2

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Maze 8

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Maze 10

REFERENCES:

1. Phil Gunby, "Life Begins for Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging - Research Group has 40th Birthday," Medical News & Perspectives (April 1, 1998): 982-983.

2. K. Warner Schaie, Intellectual Development in Adulthood (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

3. Mathhew J. Sharps and Jana L. Sharps, "Visual Memory support: An effective mnemonic device for older adults." Gerontologist, 36 (5): 706-708. October 1996.

4. G.E. Finley and T. Sharp, "Name retrieval by the elderly in the Tip-of-the-Tongue paradigm: Demonstrable success in overcoming initial failure," Educational Gerontology, 15 (1989): 159-165.

5. Marty Munson, Theresa A Yeykal, and Susan C. Smith, "Brain Boost: Practice May Keep You Plugged," Prevention, 46 (1994).