Usage Tips

The following are suggestions for using slide shows. Before participants arrive, check the operation and focus of your computer and projection units. If you are using an LCD projection system that sits on top of the overhead projector glass and uses the projector's light to display an image on the screen, look in the owner's manual to ensure that the overhead projector has a bulb that is bright enough. Most LCD units need a light source that projects at least 2000 LUMs (a measure of...

Celebrating Successes

It is what we do easily and what we like to do that we do well. Orison Swett Marden At the end of this chapter, and when applying concepts covered, you will be able to Use the criteria for an effective reward to select appropriate incentives for your learners. Apply some basic concepts related to motivation in setting up the proper learning environment. Identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. Avoid doing things that stifle or destroy learner motivation. Reinforce learning through various...

Extrinsic Rewards from Training

Participants who prefer tangible rewards or incentives for their efforts are said to be extrinsically motivated. These learners often thrive in environments in which competition and effort lead to receipt of rewards. They enjoy receiving money, prizes, gift certificates, ribbons, buttons, and other physical forms of recognition that have value for their performance. Such people often have shelves or walls in their offices or workspaces where they proudly display certificates, diplomas,...

Interim Review

Take a mental break to challenge your creative brain and review some of the key terms experienced in this chapter thus far by completing Figure 2-4. You can also use a similar technique as an Interim Review in any of your training sessions by creating Word Match puzzles with key terms of the program and distributing to participants. Give them a copy of the puzzle and encourage looking in any notes or handouts as needed to find answers. They can work individually or as teams and should be given...

Circular Ball Toss

You can employ physical movement through a group review in which learners form either one large circle (if you have fewer than 15 participants) or several smaller ones. Brain research has shown that such activity can actually aid recall and memory through stimulation of chemicals in the brain. Once you have formed a circle(s), give someone in the group a Koosh or large foam rubber ball. Inform participants that they will gently toss the ball from one person to another, not giving it to any one...

Cloth Board Communication

These are items that have been around in schools and military programs for years. They are sometimes called flannel boards because of the material that covers them. You can display poster board strips with images, words, or sentences on them just as you would on a flip chart easel. I occasionally use cloth boards as a break from traditional training aids to add variety. You can make one by buying a piece of thin plywood a very thick piece of cardboard from a box will also work. Cut it about the...

Lighting the Creativity Lamp

Creativity involves breaking out of established patterns in order to look at things in a different way. At the end of this chapter, and when applying concepts covered, you will be able to Recognize different forms of creativity. Describe the four steps of the creativity process. Develop and use a variety of creative problem-solving techniques in training. Modify current training practices to enhance learning outcomes. Decide which personal paradigms are stifling creatively and work toward...

Eraser Shapes

Telephones are great for telephone and customer service training. Light bulbs enhance creativity and brainstorming sessions. Computers are perfect for software PC training. Sailboats, cars, planes, or trains expand the theme in travel transportation classes. Numbers and letters of the alphabet work for any topic area. Seasonal erasers can be used during a specific holiday or special day just to add a festive note (e.g., Halloween ghosts, Thanksgiving turkeys, Easter bunnies). Dinosaurs work...

Learning Objectives

At the end of this chapter, and when applying concepts covered, you will be able to Group participants in a manner that facilitates learning, idea exchange, and networking. Randomly select group members in a variety of creative ways. Select group leaders and scribes in a fun and innovative manner. Use various props, toys, and incentive items to group participants and identify roles within the team. Utilize clever techniques to identify group topics for discussion and review. Reward participants...

Practice Practice Practice

This does not mean to try to memorize all of your session content. That will likely end in failure because short-term memory can hold only a limited amount of information. Also, if someone asks a question or gets you off a topic, you may have trouble refocus-ing and remembering what you were going to say. This is one important reason for ALWAYS using notes or a lesson plan. Rehearsing what you will say in the actual room and with the actual equipment you plan to use can mentally help fix the...

Pessimists

There are some participants who for a variety of reasons will try to squelch the ideas of others. These learners automatically respond, Yes, but. , no matter what is offered. My personal belief is that what they do is learned behavior they got from caregivers as children. Their role models likely were poor communicators who failed to give positive feedback or reinforcement to these people often. Pessimists will typically use such phrases as We tried that before and it did not work. Sounds good...

Mirror Participant Behavior

Researchers in the area of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) have examined human behavior for years in an effort to determine why some people seem to attract others (charisma) and build almost instant rapport, whereas others do not. They found that matching the pacing of someone's speech pattern and movements can build trust and acceptance. Some salespeople and therapists have used this technique successfully for years, becoming rich and famous as a result. You can incorporate the NLP technique...

Use Standard English

Technical terms, contractions (e.g., don't, can't, wouldn't), slang (e.g., like, you know, whoopee, rubberneck) or broken English (e.g., sentences that are imperfectly spoken or that fail to follow standard rules of grammar or syntax) can be obstacles to someone who does not speak English well. You would do well to recognize that some participants might understand a language without being able to speak it effectively. Also, some participants may not speak a language (especially in public...

Respect Your Learners

Many trainers, especially those with less experience, believe that they are the expert and know best how to conduct a session or activity. Also, technically proficient people with little training experience sometimes default to their knowledge to carry a session. In either instance, participants can be offended or may develop an indifference to the training because of a feeling that they are being disrespected. As adult learners, most participants bring...

Pause Before Speaking

If you have seen professional speakers after they are introduced, you have possibly noted that once they step onto the stage, they pause for dramatic effect. They might glance around the room, smile, gesture openly to the crowd, and say something such as, Look at this audience You are wonderful Give yourself a hand. All the time, while the audience is applauding, the speaker is mentally preparing opening remarks. You do not need to rush in talking as you enter the room. Take your time, breathe,...

Talkers

A learner who is a talker can be one of two types. Conversationalist The first is one who continually holds side conversations in a low voice with those sitting nearby. When asked if he or she would share his or her comment with the rest of the group, the response is usually, No or That's okay. To handle such participants I use one or more of the following tactics. Without drawing attention to the person verbally, I casually move in his or her direction as I continue to talk to all...

Stickers

Use Mondo Koosh or foam rubber sponge balls as symbols of office for your leaders. Place one ball at random locations so that each group will have a leader for your first activity. For you second activity, have the former leaders gently toss their balls to anyone else in their group. That person just volunteered to be the new leader. Have the scribes similarly pass their symbol of office. A variation on this is to allow the leaders to delegate their leadership responsibilities to another member...

Training Strategies for Improved Effectiveness

Try to determine the level of impairment prior to training (e.g., mild, intermediate, or total). Also, is it in one or both ears Ask the participant what accommodations might increase his or her learning effectiveness. Focus on the participant's abilities and be positive about his or her accomplishments. Position the participant in a location that maximizes his or her abilities. Typically this is in the front of the room and near any audiovisual aids you will be using. If you have participants...

Action Learning Strategies

Any technique that actively engages the minds of your participants or gets them physically involved can lead to increased learning. Whether they participate individually or in small groups, learners can figure out how to modify existing processes or practices, systems, ideas, or techniques in order to develop new variations simply by becoming engaged in the learning. Many of the training strategies outlined throughout this book in which participants move or interact fall into the action...

Clarifying Written Messages

Printed messages can provide a comprehensive explanation of a topic supplement what you say verbally, and work in concert with visual images. Whether you put text in handouts or onto visual aids, such as transparencies, slides, or flip charts, the written message should be clear and concise. It should also be checked for correct spelling, grammar, and syntax. This is crucial because what you write sends a message about your abilities and professionalism. Improperly composed messages can...

Do Something Physical

You read about how activity stimulates the brain and learning. It is also good to help take your mind off any nervousness and to stimulate your muscles, increase your breathing, and enrich the brain with oxygen. Try some stretches, cross-lateral activities, or some isometric exercises. For example, stand an arm's length from a wall, position your feet at shoulder width, and place your palms on the wall. Tense your upper body as you push against the wall trying to push it over. Hold this for...

Job Aids

There are many ways to aid learners during and following a training session. One economical means is to develop a job aid that can be used during training and as a reference by participants later. These reinforcements to learning come in many forms and can range from a single-sided page or poster to a guide kept on a bookshelf or in a desk. They offer step-by-step checklists for the procedures of a given process or task. Common examples of job aids include the following. Posters show...

Jigsaw Puzzles

As you read in the last chapter, jigsaw puzzles are excellent vehicles for accomplishing a variety of training objectives. To add a little creative twist to training in which there are fewer than 25 attendees, I like to use puzzles in opening team activities. To do so, I create two identical jigsaw puzzles from a printed sheet containing program objectives, a quote, or startling fact related to the session content (see Figure 4-3). On the reverse side of the printed sheet, I copy a jigsaw...

Criteria For Rewards

Learners need to recognize the item you are giving as a reward as having positive value. Examples of such rewards include candy, stickers, toys, food, prizes, or gifts. The dollar value is irrelevant because each learner places importance and desirability on his or her own experience and need. Some people treasure small toys or mementos whereas others other crave larger, more expensive gifts. Predictability is a second criterion for determining if something is a reward. For example, you...

Learnercentered Activities

To engage and energize your participants effectively, you must build a variety of learner-centered activities into each of your sessions. As you read in other chapters, participants learn and retain more when they are an active part of the learning process. Such involvement can be the result of individual and or group activity. In whatever format, involvement can lead to more confident, independent, and self-managed learners. Later in this chapter I will outline a variety of group activities...

Performance Reports

An additional source of needs feedback is employee performance appraisals. By examining and analyzing the reports of session attendees and other employees with similar job descriptions or at similar job grade levels, you can gain a perspective of how well your learners are performing compared to others. You can also potentially identify broader organizational training needs. In addition to performance appraisals, you should examine organizational performance reports. Documents such as sales and...

Paper Products

There are many ways to divide people randomly using various products made of paper. Keep in mind that your goal is to have an equal number of people in each group. Whatever method you use should include a variety of colors or shapes. Here are a few ideas that might help. Playing cards can be used to divide people into four equal groups. To do this, find out how many attendees you will have, then select that number of cards sequentially from each suit in a deck of regular playing cards (e.g.,...

Pre Class Assignments

To help ensure that participants take ownership for some of their own learning, I like to give pre-class assignments. If you decide to do likewise, it is important to ensure that you address the assignment during the session. Otherwise, participants typically resent the time they thus wasted unnecessarily. Depending on the session topic, time allocated for the training, and organizational culture, I sometimes send assignments in the form of a welcome announcement to everyone who registers....

Strategies for Keeping the Communication Flowing

How can you use what you read in this chapter to improve the design of your written materials 2. What materials can you think of to use as job aids for reinforcing what participants get in the classroom on the job _ 3. In what ways can you add pizzazz to your flip charts using information found in this chapter 4. How can posters, charts, and diagrams be incorporated into future training programs 5. What are some creative training uses that you can think of for Post-It Notes 6. What role do...

Training Participants Who Have Disabilities

Because there are so many different types of disabilities and each person's disability affects him or her in potentially different ways, it is impossible to list all of them here. In addition, many people have nonvisible disabilities that can affect their ability to function as others might and create learning challenges for them (e.g., diabetes, dyslexia, alcoholism, and cancer). Such participants may not always be willing to disclose their disability to others and in some cases have learned...

Windows and Doors

As you will read later, the amount and type of light provided in a learning environment can greatly impact learning. For that reason, look for facilities that have an ample number of windows or other light sources. If you have windows, make sure that there are coverings to control the amount of light, glare, and distractions that they cause. Also, consider whether you will open the windows (if possible) to have good exchange of air that can stimulate learners. There is a disadvantage in having...

Hf55495t7 L755 2003

Lucas All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Although this publication is subject to copyright, permission is granted free of charge to photocopy any pages by reader that are required in the text. Only the original purchaser may make photocopies. Under no circumstances is it permitted to sell or distribute on a commercial basis material reproduced from this publication. This publication may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in...

Crossword Word Search Word Scramble or Word Match

A fun, but less active way to review course content is through the computer-generated puzzles that you read about earlier in the book for use as interim reviews. You can create customized puzzles with clues and words from your program material to remind and review what was learned. Allow participants to use materials and notes when completing the puzzles, as this reinforces concepts as they reread information. Award a prize to the first person accurately completing the puzzle, but have everyone...

Illumination Lighting

The significance of lighting cannot be overlooked when considering your learning environment. Physiologically, the retina of the human eye accounts for 40 percent of all nerve fibers connected to the brain, which may account for the high number of visual learners in any group. This fact points to the need to do whatever possible to stimulate those nerves effectively. By providing natural or effective artificial lighting along with other visual stimuli, you can help improve the chance that...

Encourage Networking

If you have ever attended a training session in which there was silence as people arrived, because there was no background music or talking and the instructor was busy going through a checklist and ignoring participants, you probably recognize how awkward, sterile, and boring such a setting can be. To help alleviate the possibility of your sessions feeling this way, get participants involved with one another as soon as possible. You can do this by having a statement on your welcome flip chart...

Electrical Sources and Controls

Many training rooms are designed by nontrainers and without consultation with the people who will actually use them. As a result, it is not unusual for you to have limited access to controls and electrical plugs. Often the controls for lighting, sound, and temperature will be located in the back of the room away from where you are standing. An ideal training environment will have ample electrical outlets spaced approximately every 6-8 feet to allow access to various training and computer...

Buttons

Buttons with phrases related to your program topic (e.g., Satisfaction Guaranteed or Smiles Will Be Returned for customer service programs) or colorful graphic images (e.g., a smile face, clown face, or shape such as a square, circle, rectangle) are inexpensive and easy to obtain. You can even create your own customized versions (see Creative Presentation Resources in the Resources for Trainers section in the appendices). Also, as with some of the items discussed earlier, these can be given to...

Card Games

Similar to the jigsaw puzzle idea, you can use card games as a basis for participant involvement. To do this use a standard deck of playing cards with four suits (hearts, clubs, spades, and diamonds). Form small groups of four to eight participants. Based on the total number of participants, select a run of cards from each suit (e.g., for a class of 20 or groups of five participants each, you need something like 9, 10, jack, queen, and king). Just as with the jigsaw puzzle pieces, randomly send...

Intrinsic Motivators

This is because a gift certificate may be a physical sign of appreciation, however, once it is used, nothing remains. On the other hand, when you provide such learners with meaningful commentary on a task well done, they can later recall the emotionally happy experience of getting the recognition. This feedback might be one-on-one or in front of a group of their peers, depending on their personalities and beliefs (some ethnic and religious groups do not seek individual gain or personal...

Focus Groups

You can also use focus groups, as you did before training. You may want to use the same people from the pretraining groups in order to close the loop on their ideas and opinions. Such people can be helpful in determining how effective their ideas before the session were in meeting training needs. Their feedback can be useful in increasing their knowledge and awareness of the complexities of the training process, providing feedback to them, and potentially in gaining their future training...

Respect Personal Preferences

Do not assume familiarity by addressing people by their first names until you have established that type of informal environment or relationship. To do this, you can either introduce yourself as people enter a session or, at the beginning of the session, explain that the program will be in a relaxed and informal format. Then, request that participants print the name they prefer to be called on their name tents. Whatever they write should be used. If someone writes Mr., Ms., or Dr. Nyugen, then...

Reinforcing What Is Learned

In addition to reinforcing key elements of your material throughout a session, it is important to do a comprehensive review at the end. This is one of your last opportunities to emphasize the main points of the program and to clarify anything that you may need to. As you read earlier in the book about memory, learners are more likely to retain what is learned if the brain continues to experience the information or stimuli through different senses a number of times. Such reinforcement helps...

Questioning With A Purpose

One key tool you have for gaining involvement and gathering information from learners in your sessions is the art of questioning. I believe that asking questions appropriately is truly an art because not everyone can do it well. The result of inappropriately worded questions is that you get what you ask for. If you ask the wrong question, you get unintentional, useless information that can lead to frustration and the need for additional questions. A humorous example of this occurred in an...

Tactic 1

Be firm, polite, and take charge of the situation immediately. Other participants look to you to intercede, especially if the Agitator is attacking one of them or their ideas. In a cordial manner react to a negative or sarcastic comment with, That may be how you feel_ however, we should hear from others about their views. Then call on someone else immediately. Do not let the Agitator corner you into a one-on-one confrontation. Others who are friends of the person may side with him or her.

Who Am I

There are a couple of variations of this activity that you may want to use to help participants get to know more about one another. In the first version, you can have participants write on an adhesive nametag either four or five bits of information about themselves (e.g., height, eye color, ethnicity, highest year of schooling, or whatever) or hobbies and interests that they have. They should not put their name on the tag. Have them toss all the nametags into a pile. Finally, have each person...

Learn from the Experts

Giving information to large groups can be a stressful event. Some researchers have found that public speaking is the number one fear of most people (glossophobia), even before fear of death. Presenting information or giving a speech can be especially unnerving if you are unsure of what you will say or do. That is why practice is your best tool for success. Fortunately, many people have presented before you and have left behind valuable advice in the form of audio- and videotapes. Take advantage...

Creativity Enablers

To enhance your creativity, or to get participants thinking outside the box, get back to the basics by keeping in mind that we learn adult behaviors as children. Take time out of your schedule to reconnect with your inner child in order to rekindle the creativity flame. If you have children, raid their toy box or closet. If not, take an idea excursion to a local toy or hobby store and just wander. Pick up toys and really look at them. Check their features and how they operate. Think of what...

Info

They also offer insights for trainers and educators into better strategies to help provide information and reinforce assimilation in the brain. The mind is not a vessel to be filled but a fire to be ignited. Plutarch PUTTING YOUR BRAIN TO WORK ACTIVITY What are some things you have heard about how brain functioning impacts training How have you applied, or seen, brain-based concepts applied in training programs _ In the instances in which you have seen or experienced...

Brain Based Learning

The human brain a spring board from which we can leap into the magical world of genius. At the end of this chapter, and when applying the concepts covered, you will be able to Describe the theory of brain-based learning and how it impacts the training experience. Use knowledge of brain functioning to design programs and environments that will stimulate participants. Apply recent brain research findings to your training programs to enhance learning. Recognize the elements of learning. Create...

Grabbing Attention

So much of the success of your training initiatives is dependent on the initial approach you take. Underestimating the need to start off with a powerful introduction could be a serious mistake. By slowly drifting into your topic or unemotionally greeting participants when presenting a session overview, you can lose learner attention. Once this has occurred, you may never be able to fully rekindle a spark of curiosity and interest. To that end, make your opening remarks with enthusiasm. Put...

The Impact of Color

Marketing experts have known and used that knowledge for decades. Those who excel in successfully selling products to the public often do so through the use of color. For example, Heath12 relates how when Tide detergent was created in the 1950s, white (symbolizing cleanliness and purity) was selected for the detergent and bright orange (bold, bright, powerful) was chosen to contrast with the gold (rich, valuable) on the package. Color can be used to attract participant...

Resources for Trainers

The items and vendors listed in this section are provided for your reference and possible use only. Accuracy of information was current at the time of publication, however, the author and publisher cannot be held responsible for changes, as organizations frequently revise their business strategies and operational processes. The author and publisher do not endorse these organizations or their products and services. Creative Presentation Resources, Inc. is the exception, in that it is owned by...

Interim Reviews

Earlier in the book, you read about interim reviews and how they can be used at various points to verify that participants are getting key information from the session. Placed at various points throughout your sessions, the reviews provide an opportunity to reinforce learning, cause a break in the flow of information, identify issues or points that need additional review or reinforcement, and provide fun while rewarding participants. While doing the reviews, learners consciously review material...

General Energizers

Building quick energizing activities of 5 minutes or less into your programs can help increase participant alertness and enhance learning because the blood will start pumping and ultimately stimulate the brain. Many brain researchers have discovered that giving learners a break every 60-90 minutes can help invigorate and rejuvenate energy levels. When you see energy levels and enthusiasm dropping in your session, or directly following a break, take a few minutes to move people around in the...

Glossary of Terms

Accelerated learning uses a wide variety of experiential learning activities, such as role-plays, games, metaphors, music, props, and images that appeal to all five learner senses. Active learning describes training in which participants put forth much of the effort to make learning occur. It is brain based, energized, engaging, challenging, and fun. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is U.S. Federal legislation that guarantees people with actual or perceived disabilities, and those with a...

Icebreakers

There are literally endless possibilities related to helping participants relax and get to know one another at the beginning of a session. Even if you are conducting a short 1-hour presentation, you should include an icebreaker of 5 minutes to get learners into the right frame of mind. An icebreaker is typically a structured activity designed to encourage networking, relaxation, and brief introductions. They should be fast paced, upbeat, and fun. They are not necessarily content driven,...

Cosmi H Projector

2600 Homestead Place Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220 (310)886-3510 www.cosmi.com Expert Software P.O. Box 144506 Coral Gables, FL 33114-4506 (800)759-2562 Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7 (613)728-3733 88 Rowland Way Novato, CA 94945 (415)897-9900 www.printmaster.com Broderbund 88 Rowland Way Novato, CA 94945 (415)895-2000 www.broderbund.com Creative Presentation Resources, Inc P.O. Box 180487 Casselberry, FL 32718-0487 (407)695-5535 (800)308-0399...

Optical Illusions

Optical Illusions Old Man Young Girl

People are fascinated by things that are not what they seem. Optical illusions are wonderfully creative tools for emphasizing that first impressions are not always correct. They can also be used to grab or regain attention as an energizing activity throughout the day. You can include them in your sessions by making transparencies of several illusions. To do so, have participants take out paper and pencil, project the images on the screen for 10 seconds, and have learners write down what they...

Hollow Square and Solid Square Style Seating with Tables Figure 513

This configuration uses rectangular tables in two different variations and offers the same advantages and disadvantages as the circular style seating configuration. FIGURE 5-12. Rounds style seating with tables FIGURE 5-13. Hollow square and solid square style seating with tables FIGURE 5-12. Rounds style seating with tables FIGURE 5-13. Hollow square and solid square style seating with tables

Open Square Style Seating with Tables Figure 514

Similar to the hollow and solid square style seating, this option to the circular style seating allows good group interaction. By removing one of the tables, you can enter the square to better interact and make eye contact with learners. You can also use a flip chart for capturing ideas and comments. All advantages and disadvantages of the hollow square and solid square style seating are the same, except that the facilitator is no longer on an equal status with participants. As a result,...

Speak Clearly and Concisely

Strive to enunciate each word clearly. This is especially important and effective if you have learners with hearing impairments or who normally speak another language. Acronyms NAFTA, for North American Free Trade Agreement , contractions e.g., I'd or you'll , technical jargon, slang, or slurred words e.g., wouldja, didja, or hafta can all cause difficulty in comprehension. If you are going to introduce acronyms, technical terms, or slang words, write them down on a flip chart or other writing...

Getting Acquainted Activities

The amount and quality of in-class communication between you and participants, and among participants, can often directly impact the success of a session. One of the key differences between pedagogy and andragogy is the experience level of adult learners. Providing opportunities for participants to share their knowledge and expertise is important. Often, communication can be facilitated through activities in which learners have a chance to get to know one another, build rapport, and share what...

Crescent Style Seating without Tables Figure 517

Circular Style Seating

This arrangement offers many of the advantages of circular style seating while creating a central trainer position. The crescent configuration is also a little more formal than the circular style, yet less so than with the use of tables. Audiovisual aids can also be used. There is no writing surface for participants. FIGURE 5-17. Crescent style seating without tables with VCR, overhead projector, and flip chart FIGURE 5-17. Crescent style seating without tables with VCR, overhead projector, and...