Answers

1. d. It was the training in several branches of natural history that led to the improvement of the author's powers of observation (lines 10-11).

2. b. The author says the investigation of geology brought reasoning into play (lines 14-15), meaning he had to develop his reasoning.

3. c. Stratification means layers. In lines 17-19 stratification is opposed to chaos, as the way in which rocks are ordered.

4. e. As the author works through the logic of geology, the many disparate facts begin to make sense (lines 21-22).

5. a. The author says that the facts that he was not able to draw and did not have sufficient anatomical knowledge (lines 34-37) made his manuscripts worthless.

6. e. Monograph is a word for a narrowly focused written treatment of a subject. Compare monograph (line 41) with manuscript (line 36) for your context clue. In the context a monograph could not be less thorough than a manuscript.

7. c. The author says he took much pains in describing carefully and vividly, and that this was good practice (lines 42-45).

8. a. The word preponderated means took over or predominated. In line 59 the word over placed after preponderated is your clue, along with the context of the sentence.

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