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PI is actually true, since high concentrations of bicycles and high levels of air pollution are typically found in the same place, namely large cities. But obviously C is false. This argument-pattern is evidently not valid, and not inductively forceful either.

Usually, when there is a correlation between X and Y without causation, what is going on is that some underlying factor causes both X and Y. In the case of bicycles and pollution, the common underlying cause is

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