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That P2 is false can be made obvious by considering certain counterexamples. Creatures that wear clothes, for example, tend to be more intelligent than those that do not. These things are correlated. But wearing clothes does not cause intelligence. In cases where there is correlation between two or more events or phenomena and they are, in fact, causally related, it is often difficult to distinguish which is cause and which is effect. Poverty and ill health tend to go together, but which causes which? It is probable that in many cases they are mutually causally efficacious. We discuss the relation between correlation and cause in more detail in Chapter 5.

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