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commits the fallacy of mistaking correlation for cause. Our point here is not that it is completely mistaken to think that there is a link between poverty and under-achievement in school. Indeed, there is plenty of respectable research establishing a relationship between them. And certainly a statistical correlation is necessary for a causal relation: if there is no statistical correlation, then there cannot be a causal relation. What is crucial, though, is that we resist making the mistaken inferential leap from the fact of their statistical correlation to the alleged fact of a causal relationship between them. There may well be such a relationship, but correlation alone is not sufficient to conclude that the relationship is causal, as we see when we reconstruct the argument in standard form:

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