This fallacy has already been mentioned in Chapter 3 (see p.82). It is committed when one mistakenly infers from a proposition that the majority of a minority group are thus-and-so together with a proposition that the minority of a larger majority are not thus-and-so that someone who is thus-and-so must be a member of the first minority. The inference is mistaken because the proportion of the majority who are thus-and-so may still be numerically larger than the majority of the minority. The fallacy commonly occurs when arguers resort to gender or racial stereotypes to make a point. Suppose that Ringons are a minority group outnumbered by non-Ringons by ten to one and someone argues:
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