Example

No one has ever been able to prove the existence of extrasensory perception. We must therefore conclude that extrasensory perception is a myth. Appeal to ignorance a Our employees have asked us to provide lounge areas where they can spend their breaks. This request will have to be refused. If we give them lounge areas, next they'll be asking for a swimming pool and sauna. Then it will be tennis courts, football pitches, fitness centres ...

b A few minutes after the minister made his speech to the City of London, a devastating explosion occurred. For the safety of the people who live and work in the City, it is imperative that the minister makes no more speeches here.

c Publishing these vile criminals' names and addresses in our paper was definitely the right thing to do. We have been inundated with calls and faxes from readers who support our stance.

d If she doesn't finish her assignment on time, she will fail the course. She has failed the course so obviously she didn't finish her assignment on time.

e We have a simple choice between developing genetically manipulated crops or continuing to stand by while thousands of people in the Third World die of starvation and malnutrition.

f As my client has pointed out, tax avoidance is not illegal, so she has done nothing immoral.

g The Japanese diet is low in dairy products and certain cancers have a very low incidence in Japan. So if you want to avoid cancer, give up drinking milk and eating milk products.

h Teachers say that their job is becoming harder and harder and that they deserve more pay. But the government should ignore them, they're just a bunch of whingeing liberals.

i It's all very well for the caring middle classes to say that we should provide more aid to the Third World, but remember that most of them are preaching at us from around their well-provided dining tables.

j Given the evidence that so many students are cheating in examinations, examinations should be abolished in favour of assessment by course-work.

3 (i) Name the fallacy committed by each of the following arguments and (ii) reconstruct the argument to demonstrate its fallaciousness.

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