Causal generalisation A causal generalisation is a generalisation to

the effect that things of one kind tend to cause things of another kind. Such a generalisation is true if the presence of a thing of the first kind raises the probability of things of the second kind, even when other possible causes are absent.

Conclusion An argument's conclusion is the proposition that its premises are intended to support. The distinctive aim of giving an argument is rationally to persuade an audience that the conclusion is true.

Conclusion indicators These are words such as 'therefore', 'so', and 'thus' that are often used to indicate the conclusion of an argument. Such words sometimes serve other purposes, however, such as indicating a causal relationship.

Conditional A conditional proposition is a single proposition that joins two propositions, the antecedent and consequent. Its usual function is to assert that if the antecedent is true, then so is the consequent. It is most characteristically expressed by means of 'if-then'. Conditionals, unlike arguments, may be evaluated as true or false.

Conditional probability The conditional probability of a proposition P, given evidence (set of premises) A, is the probability, if A holds (that is, if all the premises in A are true), that P is true. Conditional probabilities are to be assessed ignoring any evidence not included in A that might be relevant to the truth-value of P.

Connecting premises These are conditionals or generalisations, usually implicitly assumed by an arguer, that are needed in order to infer the argument's conclusion. For example if the argument is 'Mary is a doctor, therefore Mary has a university degree', a suitable connecting premise is 'All doctors have university degrees'.

Connotation, primary/secondary The primary connotation of a term is the condition that is necessary and sufficient for something's being a member of the extension of the term: it is the rule that determines whether or not a given thing is or is not correctly designated by the term. The secondary connotation of a term is the range of further attributes that a thing is commonly assumed to possess if it is thought to be correctly designated by the term. The primary connotation of 'mink coat', for example, is 'coat made from the furs of minks'; its secondary connotation might include 'expensive', 'posh', 'old-fashioned', 'warm', and 'beautiful' or 'immoral', depending on opinion. Unlike a term's primary connotation, its secondary connotation can vary from person to person.

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