The number of doctors should be increased

This argument is valid.4 Strictly speaking, PI and P2 are now redundant, since they can be inferred from P3 and P4; but it is harmless, and it makes it clearer, to leave them in. Of course, the argument is a bit vague: it does not say to what extent the NHS should be improved, nor by how many the number of doctors should be increased. Someone actually advancing this argument would want to fill in these details.

In considering this issue we focused on an argument of type (1), but the weighing of costs and benefits may enter into any of the eight types of practical argument. None of the eight patterns is valid as it stands. For example, consider type (7). It might be that the cost of not performing action X would be greater than the benefit of not increasing the amount of chocolate (that is to say, it might be that the benefit of performing it is greater than the cost of increasing the amount of chocolate).

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