to compassion, pity or guilt, appeal to cuteness, appeal to sexiness, appeals to wealth, status, power, hipness, coolness, etc., appeal to fear (also known as scare tactics), the direct attack and hard sell, buzzwords, scare quotes, trading on an equivocation, smokescreen (changing the subject).

Rhetorical question An interrogative sentence that is not really intended as a question, but as a statement, usually of a proposition with which the speaker or writer assumes the audience will agree.

Samples An inductive inference is inductively forceful if, but only if, the sample cited in the premise of the inference is representative of the population cited in the conclusion of the inference. Suppose that n is the proportion of the sample known to bear a certain trait. We can reasonably conclude that the proportion of the population bearing that trait is n only if we have good reason to think that nothing has caused that proportion in the sample that does not equally affect the population as a whole.

Scope To speak of the scope of a generalisation - for example one of the form 'All X are Y' - is a way of discussing the size of the class X. For example the scope of 'All dogs are friendly' is wider than that of 'All beagles are friendly'. See relevance.

Sham-reasoning Attempts to persuade which appear to give reasons for accepting/rejecting a claim but in fact do not give us any reason for doing so are instances of sham-reasoning. Fallacies and rhetorical ploys are types of sham-reasoning, the former argumentative sham-reasoning, the latter non-argumentative.

Soft generalisation A soft generalisation such as 'Most dogs are friendly' is contrasted with a hard generalisation such as 'All dogs are friendly'. Unlike hard generalisations, soft generalisations cannot be refuted by a single counter-example. Soft generalisations are frequently expressed without an explicit quantifier, as in 'Siamese cats meow a lot'.

Soundness An argument is sound if, but only if, its premises are all true, and it is either deductively valid or inductively forceful.

Speaker-relativity A kind of statement is speaker-relative if it expresses a different proposition depending on who makes the statement. For example if John says 'I am left-handed' he says that he is left-handed,

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