In this final chapter we will delve deeper into some philosophical issues underlying the principles of good critical thinking. We begin the chapter by extending the discussion of truth that appears in Chapters 1 and 2 and attempting to dispel what in our experience is a deep seated myth - that what is true depends upon nothing more than personal opinion or taste. As we will explain, this is the myth that all truth is relative. Later we examine the relationship between believing that something is the case, being justified in believing that it is the case and knowing that it is the case. Issues associated with these relationships are important for critical thinking because they are concerned with the adequacy of evidence for beliefs. Thus they are at the root of our determinations of whether or not premises are true, whether or not the conclusion of an inductively forceful argument is defeated for a person, and whether or not an argument is rationally persuasive for a person. Further, the concepts of truth, knowledge and evidence are such frequent sources of confusion in argumentative contexts that clarity about them is extremely valuable in its own right.
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